A key gene modifies regulatory T cells to fine-tune the immune response

The human immune system is a finely-tuned machine, balancing when to release a cellular army to deal with pathogens, with when to rein in that army, stopping an onslaught from attacking the body itself. Now, researchers have discovered a way to control regulatory T cells, immune cells that act as a cease-fire signal, telling the immune system when to stand down.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Engineered killer immune cells target tumors and their immunosuppressive allies

Scientists have engineered natural killer immune cells that not only kill head and neck tumor cells in mice but also reduce the immune-suppressing myeloid cells that allow tumors to evade the immune response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel protein drives cancer progression

Researchers have discovered a protein that drives the progression of esophageal cancer and liver cancer and it could be a promising target for cancer drug development.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Compounds halt SARS-CoV-2 replication by targeting key viral enzyme

New research identifies several existing compounds that block replication of the COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) within human cells grown in the laboratory. The inhibitors all demonstrated potent chemical and structural interactions with a viral protein critical to the virus’s ability to proliferate.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Getting a grasp on India’s malaria burden

A new approach could illuminate a critical stage in the life cycle of one of the most common malaria parasites.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Marine algae from the Kiel Fjord discovered as a remedy against infections and skin cancer

Using state-of-the-art approaches coupled with bio- and cheminformatics and machine learning, researchers have succeeded in discovering new, bioactive components of the Baltic Sea Baltic Sea seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and its fungal symbiont against infectious bacteria or skin cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Discovery of key protein behind cancer relapse and progression can lead to new therapies

Reports show that cancer is the second-highest leading cause of death globally. A recent study by scientists provides new evidence supporting the presence of a key mechanism behind progression and relapse in cancer. The study discusses the role of MBNL1 protein as a biomarker for cancer prognosis, which can lead to the development of new treatment strategies for cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Glowing dye may aid in eliminating cancer

When a solid cancer is surgically removed, any small piece that is left behind increases the chance of a local recurrence or spread. In a pilot study of dogs with mammary tumors, a disease very similar to human breast cancer, a team found that an injectable dye, which glows under near-infrared light, illuminated cancerous growth in the primary tumor as well as in lymph nodes.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Engineered immune cells recognize, attack human and mouse solid-tumor cancer cells

CAR-T therapy has been used successfully in patients with blood cancers such as lymphoma and leukemia. It modifies a patient’s own T-cells by adding a piece of an antibody that recognizes unique features on the surface of cancer cells. In a new study, researchers report that they have dramatically broadened the potential targets of this approach – their engineered T-cells attack a variety of solid-tumor cancer cells from humans and mice.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers destroy cancer cells with ultrasound treatment

An international research team has developed a noninvasive technology platform for gene delivery into breast cancer cells. The technique combines ultrasound with tumor-targeted microbubbles.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel function of platelets in tumor blood vessels found

Scientists have discovered a hitherto unknown function of blood platelets in cancer. In mouse models, these platelets have proved to help preserve the vascular barrier which makes blood-vessel walls selectively impermeable, thereby reducing the spread of tumor cells to other parts of the body.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecular simulations show how drugs block key receptors

Many pharmaceuticals work by targeting what are known as “G-protein-coupled receptors“. In a new study, scientists describe how they have been able to predict how special molecules that can be used in new immunotherapy against cancer bind to these receptors. The researchers‘ calculation methods are a vital contribution to future structure-based drug design.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New class of precision medicine strips cancer of its DNA defenses

A new precision medicine targeting cancer’s ability to repair its DNA has shown promising results in the first clinical trial of the drug class. The new study, designed to test the drug’s safety, found that half of patients given the new drug either alone or with platinum chemotherapy saw their cancer stop growing, and two patients saw their tumours shrink or disappear completely.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Immune cells infiltrating tumors may play bigger cancer role than previously thought

Researchers uncovered in mice how a molecule involved in cells‘ response to stress determines whether macrophages promote inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. Inflammation is known to promote tumor growth, making this molecule an attractive target for drug development.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Online program improves insomnia in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors

Researchers show that an online program developed specifically for AYA cancer survivors can significantly alleviate insomnia and improve overall quality of life.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Vitamin D may help prevent a common side effect of anti-cancer immunotherapy

published in CANCER indicates that taking vitamin D supplements may help prevent a potentially serious side effect of a revolutionary form of anti-cancer therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

This enigmatic protein sculpts DNA to repair harmful damage

Sometimes, when something is broken, the first step to fixing it is to break it even more. Scientists have discovered this is the case for a DNA-repairing enzyme that marks then further breaks damaged DNA. Their surprising findings have provided much-needed insight into how DNA repair works in healthy cells, as well as how different mutations can translate into different diseases and cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Shining light on a malignant lung cancer

Treating a rare type of malignant lung cancer could improve, thanks to near-infrared irradiation and a cancer-targeting compound.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Renewed hope for treatment of pain and depression

Researchers have developed LIH383, a novel molecule that binds to and blocks a previously unknown opioid receptor in the brain, thereby modulating the levels of opioid peptides produced in the central nervous system (CNS) and potentiating their natural painkilling and antidepressant properties.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Nanoparticle for overcoming leukemia treatment resistance

One of the largest problems with cancer treatment is the development of resistance to anticancer therapies. A research team found that repurposing a commonly used chemotherapy drug using a nanoparticle was more effective than both a solution of the pure drug and other available treatments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Sedentary behavior independently predicts cancer mortality

In the first study to look at objective measures of sedentary behavior and cancer mortality, researchers found that greater inactivity was independently associated with a higher risk of dying from cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Overcoming a vexing problem in vaccine research

Researchers have made a breakthrough in vaccine development for a common and difficult to treat pneumonia-causing pathogen.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A sugar hit to help destroy cancer cells

Like any cells in the body, cancer cells need sugar ­– namely glucose — to fuel cell proliferation and growth. However, researchers have unlocked a weakness in a common type of cancer cell: sugar inflexibility. That is, when cancer cells are exposed to a different type of sugar – galactose – the cells can’t adapt, and will die.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Virus co-opts immune protein to avoid antiviral defences

By discovering a trick the hepatitis C virus uses to evade the immune system, scientists have identified a new antiviral defence system that could be used to treat many virus infections, according to new research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

TERAVOLT registry tracks outcomes among thoracic cancer patients sickened by COVID-19

New data from TERAVOLT, a global consortium that tracks outcomes of people with thoracic cancers affected by COVID-19, offers clues as to why they experienced a high death rate of 33 percent when the coronavirus swept across Europe.

Quelle: Sciencedaily