Study at University Medicine Halle points to success of immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced stomach cancer

A clinical trial conducted by researchers at University Medicine Halle has shown that the lives of patients with a certain form of stomach cancer can be significantly prolonged when the current standard of care, which uses a combination of antibody therapy and chemotherapy to inhibit cell growth through receptor blockades, is supplemented by immunotherapy with the drug nivolumab.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Precise blood diagnostics improve treatment outcome in non-small cell lung cancer patients

Non-small cell lung carcinoma is a particularly aggressive type of lung cancer. Tumor cells and tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the blood of patients with the disease can be analyzed by means of liquid biopsy throughout the course of the disease. This information is important in order to be able to target the constantly changing tumor. A study from the University of Bayreuth is the first to show that liquid biopsy significantly improves treatment outcomes in many cases and can be cost-effective in the German care system. The scientists present their research results in the Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New method revolutionizes cancer diagnosis

How does cancer arise? How does cellular composition influence tumor malignancy? These questions are profound and challenging to answer, but are crucial to understand the disease and find the right cure. Now, a German-Danish team led by Professor Matthias Mann has developed a ground-breaking technology called ‘Deep Visual Proteomics’. This method provides researchers and clinicians with a protein read-out to understand cancer at single cell-type resolution. The technology was published in the journal Nature Biotechnology and demonstrates its potential in a first application to cancer cells.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

How blood stem cells stay intact for a lifetime

Stem cells in the bone marrow keep replenishing us with blood cells until the day we die. They do this by dividing into a daughter cell that becomes a blood cell, and a second cell that remains a stem cell. But every time a cell divides, mistakes can occur that change the cell’s genome and increase the risk of it becoming a cancer cell.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Study reveals male sex hormones are new targets for cancer immunotherapy

A study examined the differences in intratumoral immune responses between male and female cancers of non-reproductive origin.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Spatial maps of melanoma

Melanoma is a somewhat unusual cancer — one that blooms before our very eyes, often on sun-exposed skin, and can quickly become deadly as it turns our own skin against us and spreads to other organs. Fortunately, when caught early, melanoma can often be cured by simple surgery, and there are now better treatments for advanced cases, including immunotherapies that prime a patient’s immune system to fight off the cancer. However, much remains unknown about melanoma, including the details of how it develops in the earliest stages, and how to best identify and treat the most dangerous early cases. Spatial maps of melanoma reveal how individual cells interact as cancer progresses.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Key characteristics of immune cells in ovarian cancer

Researchers want to improve their understanding of the immune environment in ovarian cancer in hopes of making immunotherapy an option for these patients. Researchers now report on key characteristics of immune cells in ovarian cancer and identify cell types important for mediating an immune response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers load CAR T cells with oncolytic virus to treat solid cancer tumors

Researchers have devised an immunotherapy technique that combines chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy, or CAR-T cell therapy, with a cancer-killing virus to more effectively target and treat solid cancer tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Tumors change their metabolism to spread more effectively

Cancer cells can disrupt a metabolic pathway that breaks down fats and proteins to boost the levels of a byproduct called methylmalonic acid, thereby driving metastasis, according to new research. The findings open a new lead for understanding how tumors metastasize, or spread to other tissues, and hints at novel ways to block the spread of cancer by targeting the process.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blood type may offer insights into risk of blood clot in people with cancer

A new study suggests that people with cancer and non-O blood types, such as types A, B, and AB, face an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), or blood clots in the veins, three months after their initial diagnosis. Scientists have long strived to understand the risk factors for VTE, the leading cause of preventable hospital deaths in the United States. Existing assessments use factors like tumor or cancer type to detect those at high risk of VTE. Yet, many patients without these diagnoses still develop life-threatening blood clots but go unidentified.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Epigenetic regulator explains why some lung cancer patients become resistant to common therapeutics

Cellular biologists discover why some patients become resistant to standard treatments for nonsmall cell lung cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New platform optimizes selection of combination cancer therapies

Researchers have developed a new computational tool to select optimal combination therapies for patients with cancer based on the co-occurring alterations in a given tumor.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Omicron: Number of vaccine breakthroughs in cancer patients on the rise, study finds

For cancer patients, COVID-19 poses a particular risk due to their often compromised immune systems. Now, a study shows that, due to Omicron, there is an increasing number of breakthrough infections in people with cancer, especially while they are undergoing cancer therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Study suggests why most smokers don’t get lung cancer

Cigarette smoking is overwhelmingly the main cause of lung cancer, yet only a minority of smokers develop the disease. A study suggests that some smokers may have robust mechanisms that protect them from lung cancer by limiting mutations. The findings could help identify those smokers who face an increased risk for the disease and therefore warrant especially close monitoring.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Friend or foe? The immune system collaborates with blood cancer cells

An international study demonstrates that the body’s immune system attacks itself in a rare type of blood cancer. Consequently, treatment should be targeted at the immune system as well, not only the cancer cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Evidence in mice that bacteria in tumors help cancer cells metastasize

Bacteria promote cancer metastasis by bolstering the strength of host cells against mechanical stress in the bloodstream, promoting cell survival during tumor progression, researchers report.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Exercise shown to release protein reducing bowel cancer risk

Experts have identified for the first time exactly how exercise can lower your risk of getting bowel cancer and slow the growth of tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers look to licorice for promising cancer treatments

A research review into molecular insights of a licorice-derived substance called glycyrrhizin for preventing or treating cancer suggests further research could lead to specific agents for clinical use.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Gene deletion behind anomaly in blood cancer cells

Although clinical labs have known for almost a century that a oddly shaped nucleus resembling pince-nez glasses in blood cells could indicate leukemia, the cause of this anomaly remained unknown. Scientists have now discovered that loss of nuclear Lamin B1 induces defects in the nuclear morphology and in human hematopoietic [blood-forming] stem cells associated with malignancy. The scientists went on to detail that lamin B1 deficiency alters genome organization. This in turn causes expansion of blood-forming stem cells, a bias towards their becoming myeloids, genome instability due to defective DNA damage repair and other problems that set the stage for cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Gene deletion behind anomaly in blood cancer cells

Although clinical labs have known for almost a century that a oddly shaped nucleus resembling pince-nez glasses in blood cells could indicate leukemia, the cause of this anomaly remained unknown. Scientists have now discovered that loss of nuclear Lamin B1 induces defects in the nuclear morphology and in human hematopoietic [blood-forming] stem cells associated with malignancy. The scientists went on to detail that lamin B1 deficiency alters genome organization. This in turn causes expansion of blood-forming stem cells, a bias towards their becoming myeloids, genome instability due to defective DNA damage repair and other problems that set the stage for cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cause of metastasis in prostate cancer discovered

Prostate cancers remain localized in the majority of cases, giving affected individuals a good chance of survival. However, about 20% of patients develop incurable metastatic prostate cancer, resulting in approximately 5,000 deaths each year in Austria alone. Medical research has not yet adequately explained why metastases occur in some people and not in others. A research team has now discovered specific changes in a protein that drive the growth and spread of prostate cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cause of metastasis in prostate cancer discovered

Prostate cancers remain localized in the majority of cases, giving affected individuals a good chance of survival. However, about 20% of patients develop incurable metastatic prostate cancer, resulting in approximately 5,000 deaths each year in Austria alone. Medical research has not yet adequately explained why metastases occur in some people and not in others. A research team has now discovered specific changes in a protein that drive the growth and spread of prostate cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The nanodrug that attacks cancer twice

A single nanoparticle does two jobs: enhancing the effectiveness of chemotherapy and reinvigorating the immune system.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Immune system ‘sentinel’ cells key to maintaining and regulating response to immunotherapy

The presence of dendritic cells, so-called ‘sentinel’ immune cells, is vital to maintain and regulate the balance of the body’s immune response. Researchers have discovered an essential role of these cells in the treatment of cancer and severe viral infections.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Cancer repair mechanism could be potential drug target

Searching for ways to extend the survival benefit of targeted therapies, a team led by researchers has identified a potential new tactic to disrupt the repair mechanism that cancer cells use after treatment, blunting their ability to regenerate. The approach could present a new treatment strategy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily