Es geht auch ohne Arrestin

In einem Modell der Zellmigration von Interneuronen konnten Pharmakologen des Universitätsklinikums Jena zeigen, dass dieser von G-Protein-gekoppelten Rezeptoren gesteuerte vorgeburtliche Zellwanderungsprozess nahezu unverändert abläuft, auch wenn kein Beta-Arrestin gebildet werden kann. Entscheidend ist vielmehr, dass weder zu wenig noch zu viel des Chemokins vorliegt, das den Wanderungsprozess steuert. Mit ihrer jetzt im Fachjournal Cell Reports veröffentlichten Studie rütteln die Wissenschaftler an der Lehrmeinung, dass das Adapterprotein Beta-Arrestin unentbehrlich ist für die Rezeptorfunktion.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Opposite effect: Protein widely known to fight tumors also boosts cancer growth

Researchers studying p53, the heralded cancer-fighting ‚guardian of the genome,‘ found that the human protein also plays a role in promoting tumors, in addition to suppressing them. They found that the PUMA protein works inside the cell’s mitochondria to switch energy production processes and stimulate cancer growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How plants cope with iron deficiency

Botany: Publication in Developmental Cell

31 January 2019 – Research groups from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) and the University of Münster (WWU) have discovered a new switch that plants use to control their responses to iron deficiency. The findings from their research on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is published today in the journal Developmental Cell.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Wie Pflanzen mit Eisenmangel umgehen

Botanik: Veröffentlichung in Developmental Cell

31.01.2019 – Gemeinsam haben Forschungsgruppen von der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf (HHU) und Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster (WWU) eine neue Schaltzelle gefunden, mit der Pflanzen ihre Reaktionen auf Eisenmangel steuern. Die Ergebnisse ihrer Forschungen an der Modellpflanze Arabidopsis thaliana veröffentlichen sie heute in der Fachzeitschrift Developmental Cell.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Cancer: A mutation that breaks gene interplay in 3D

Scientists have discovered how a mutated gene can affect the three-dimensional interactions of genes in the cell, leading to various forms of cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecule supporting hematopoietic recovery after transplantation of blood stem cells identified

Transplantation of blood stem cells (haematopoietic stem cell transplantation) is an important treatment option for patients with haematopoietic disorders. This method is also applied in hematopoietic stem cell-directed gene therapy. Researchers from the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI), Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines identified the endothelial protein-C receptor (EPCR) on hematopoietic stem cells to improve stem cell transplantation. These research results are reported in the journal Blood in its online version of 25.01.2019.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Zika vaccines should induce responses by CD4+ T cells

Immune cells called CD4+ T cells could be important mediators of protection against the Zika virus, according to a new study. The findings support vaccine strategies that induce a protective CD4+ T cell response to the Zika virus.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Using artificial intelligence for error correction in single cell analyses

Modern technology makes it possible to sequence individual cells and to identify which genes are currently being expressed in each cell. These methods are sensitive and consequently error prone. Devices, environment and biology itself can be responsible for failures and differences between measurements. Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München joined forces with colleagues from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the British Wellcome Sanger Institute and have developed algorithms that make it possible to predict and correct such sources of error. The work was published in ‘Nature Methods’ and ‘Nature Communications’.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Prolonged spaceflight could weaken astronauts‘ immune systems

Researchers report impaired NK-cell function during long-duration space travel.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Frog eggs help researchers understand repair of DNA damages

The DNA replication process, which takes place every time a cell divides, also triggers repair of DNA damage, researchers have described in a new study. Scientists have studied extracts from frog eggs, whose proteins are very similar to those of human cells. The researchers hope the new research results can be used to develop more effective treatments for cancer in the long run.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists create a renewable source of cancer-fighting T cells

A study by UCLA researchers is the first to demonstrate a technique for coaxing pluripotent stem cells — which can give rise to every cell type in the body and which can be grown indefinitely in the lab — into becoming mature T cells capable of killing tumor cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Nuclear actin filaments determine T helper cell function

Novel mechanism that enables CD4 T cells to selectively induce expression of cytokines. Study by the Fackler laboratory at University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Stopping cancer from recruiting immune system double agents

Cancerous tumors trick myeloid cells, an important part of the immune system, into perceiving them as a damaged part of the body; the tumors actually put myeloid cells to work helping them grow and metastasize (spread). Researchers have now discovered a potential therapy that can disrupt this recruitment and abnormal function of myeloid cells in laboratory mice. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

New mechanism to ‚activate‘ the immune system against cancer

A new mechanism for activating the immune system against cancer cells allows immune cells to detect and destroy cancer cells better than before, and most effectively in lung cancer and melanoma. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Essential amino acid in humans, methionine, controls cell growth

A recent study from the Laxman lab elucidates how a small metabolite and amino acid, methionine, acts as a growth signal for cells, by setting into motion a metabolic program for cell proliferation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

An errant editing enzyme promotes tumor suppressor loss and leukemia propagation

Researchers have found a stem cell enzyme copy edits more than 20 tumor types, providing new therapeutic target for preventing cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Cancer cells steer a jagged path

Researchers define the role of a jagged ligand, JAG1, in cancer cells‘ ability to differentiate and metastasize, making them harder to track down and eliminate. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Protein UBQLN4 beeinflusst DNA-Reparatur

Die Arbeitsgruppe um Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian Reinhardt, Klinik I für Innere Medizin, hat ein Protein identifiziert, das den Reparaturweg von DNA-Schäden maßgeblich beeinflusst und einen neuen Ansatzpunkt für eine zielgerichtete Tumortherapie ermöglicht. Die Ergebnisse wurden heute (03.01.2019) in der renommierten Fachzeitschrift Cell veröffentlicht. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Breaking down AGEs: Insight into how lifestyle drives ER-positive breast cancer

Consumption of processed foods high in sugar and fat increase levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Researchers report that AGE levels are higher in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. Addition of AGEs caused breast cancer cells, whose growth had previously been controlled by tamoxifen, to begin to grow again. This suggests that patients with high AGEs may be less likely to respond to tamoxifen treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Human blood cells can be directly reprogrammed into neural stem cells

Scientists have succeeded for the first time in directly reprogramming human blood cells into a previously unknown type of neural stem cell. These induced stem cells are similar to those that occur during the early embryonic development of the central nervous system. They can be modified and multiplied indefinitely in the culture dish and can represent an important basis for the development of regenerative therapies. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Elegant trick improves single-cell RNA sequencing

Droplet microfluidics has revolutionized single-cell RNA sequencing, offering a low-cost, high-throughput method for single-cell genomics. However, this method has been limited in its ability to capture complete RNA transcription information. Researchers have now come up with an elegant, low-cost method that solves that problem. And not only does it push single-cell genomics forward, it may allow for new avenues for studies of infection and immune biology. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

AIDS: An approach for targeting HIV reservoirs

Current HIV treatments need to be taken for life by those infected as antiretroviral therapy is unable to eliminate viral reservoirs lurking in immune cells. Scientists have identified the characteristics of CD4 T lymphocytes that are preferentially infected by the virus. Thanks to metabolic activity inhibitors, the researchers have managed to destroy these infected cells, or ‚reservoirs‘, ex vivo. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Bakterien setzen auf klassisches Geschäftsmodell

Bei der Besiedlung seines Wirtes fährt der Erreger der Lungenentzündung Pseudomonas aeruginosa eine doppelspurige Strategie. Er bildet zwei verschiedene Zellen – bewegliche Schwärmer und virulente Siedler. Forscher am Biozentrum der Universität Basel haben nun aufgeklärt, wie der Keim sich innert Sekunden an Gewebe festsetzen und sich gleichzeitig verbreiten kann. Ganz nach dem Geschäftsmodell: Niederlassen – Wachsen – Expandieren. Die Studie ist in «Cell Host & Microbe» erschienen. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Bacteria rely on classic business model

The pneumonia causing pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has developed a twin-track strategy to colonize its host. It generates two different cells – motile spreaders and virulent stickers. Researchers at the University of Basel’s Biozentrum have now elucidated how the germ attaches to tissue within seconds and consecutively spreads. Just like the business model: settling – growing – expanding. The study has been published in Cell Host & Microbe. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Scientists synthesize molecule capable of eliminating hepatitis C virus

The compound called GA-Hecate also acts on bacteria, fungi and cancer cells and will be tested against Zika and yellow fever viruses. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)