Precision medicine for pediatric cancer

Research performed over the last several decades has led to an increased understanding of the genetics of cancer. The clinical application of this knowledge for pediatric cancer has lagged behind studies performed for adults. Medical researchers now survey the landscape of this young field and present opportunities for using genomic information to advance a new era of care for children with cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Enzyme USP15 may have potential role in future treatment of various cancers

A team has found that the deubiquitinating enzyme USP15 is a potential biomarker for treatments of pancreatic cancer, as well as ovarian and breast cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Chemical probe can regulate signaling pathway and block cell invasion by arboviruses

Dysregulation of the signaling pathway known as the beta-catenin-dependent Wnt can also cause embryo malformation and contribute for the development of breast and cervical cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

From mirror-image biology to enhanced therapeutic proteins

Scientists have succeeded in reconstructing biomolecules in their mirror-image form. The researchers‘ goal is to create a mirror-image artificial protein synthesis system. Their aim is to produce mirror-image therapeutic proteins, such as antibodies, which would be protected from biological breakdown in the body and do not provoke any immune response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Oral bacteria in pancreas linked to more aggressive tumors

The presence of oral bacteria in so-called cystic pancreatic tumours is associated with the severity of the tumour, researchers report. It is hoped that the results can help to improve diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Free fatty acids appear to rewire cells to promote obesity-related breast cancer

Free fatty acids in the blood are linked with higher rates of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer in obese postmenopausal women, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A new method to diagnose cancer cells inside lymph nodes

The vast majority of cancer deaths occur due to the spread of cancer from one organ to another, which can happen either through the blood or the lymphatic system. However, it can be tricky to detect this early enough. Researchers have developed a new method that would allow doctors to detect cancers in the lymph nodes while they are still small, before they travel to other parts of the body. This can greatly increase the chances of a successful treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Early-life exposure to microbiota restricts colon cancer later in life, study finds

Exposure to microbiota, or microorganisms such as bacteria, in the early stages of life plays a crucial role in establishing optimal conditions in the intestine that inhibit the development of colon cancer in adulthood, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Danger of vitamin B12 deficiency

Using roundworms, one of Earth’s simplest animals, bioscientists have found the first direct link between a diet containing too little vitamin B12 and an increased risk of infection by two potentially deadly pathogens.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecular patterns could better predict breast cancer recurrence

The genetic and molecular make-up of individual breast tumors holds clues to how a woman’s disease could progress, including the likelihood of it coming back after treatment, and in what time frame, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Therapy could improve and prolong sight in those suffering vision loss

Ganglion cells in the eye generate noise as the light-sensitive photoreceptors die in diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. Now, neurobiologists have found a drug and gene therapy that can tamp down the noise, improving sight in mice with RP. These therapies could potentially extend the period of useful vision in those with degenerative eye diseases, including, perhaps, age-related macular degeneration.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Combination immunotherapy could stop liver cancer growth

New preclinical data offers proof-of-principle for a combination immunotherapy that suppresses tumor growth in the liver. Current therapies for liver cancer are largely ineffective, resulting in poor outcomes.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Nano-bot can probe inside human cells

Researchers have built a set of magnetic ‚tweezers‘ that can position a nano-scale bead inside a human cell with unprecedented precision. The nano-bot has already been used to study the properties of cancer cells, and could lead to enhanced diagnosis and treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Opioid crisis: Only a US phenomenon?

Addiction to prescription opioids has reached a crisis level in the United States. Now the drug is causing concern across the Atlantic. Researchers from Denmark, Norway and Sweden urge caution after discovering that prescriptions for the pain medication oxycodone have significantly increased during the last decade.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Starving leukemia cells by targeting amino acids

Eliminating ASCT2 selectively stops the growth of leukemia cells, while having limited effects on healthy blood cells and hematopoetic (blood-forming) stem cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Web tool aims to better inform and refine need for treatment in early prostate cancer

A new tool to predict an individual’s prognosis following a prostate cancer diagnosis could help prevent unnecessary treatment and related side effects, say researchers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Genetically encoded sensor isolates hidden leukemic stem cells

Researchers have devised a novel biosensor that can isolate and target leukemic stem cells. It can provide a prototype for precision oncology efforts to target patient-specific cells to fight the deadly disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Imaging technique finds differences between radiation-sensitive and resistant tumors

Researchers have begun pilot clinical trials using an imaging technique called Raman spectroscopy, which offers promise for guided cancer treatment and could spare some patients of the toxic side effects of ineffective radiation therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

When a cell’s ‚fingerprint‘ can be a weapon against cancer

A research team has computationally analyzed the expression of marker genes that are associated with a ‚fingerprint‘ of cancer cells in thousands of tumors and revealed its therapeutic potential in the fight against cancer. The study shows the types of tumors in which these genes are most active and identifies drugs with the potential to selectively eliminate cells that carry that label.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New ‚tracers‘ improve diagnosis of cancer and may be useful for treatment

Researchers have identified two new nuclear medicine tracers that make it easier to diagnose and potentially treat multiple types of cancer, providing high-quality images with less patient preparation and shorter acquisition times.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Potential way to improve cancer surgery outcomes by managing nontraditional risk factors

In a study of 142 patients preparing for cancer surgery, researchers say they have evidence that psychological or social risk factors such as depression, limited resilience and lack of emergency resources along with standard medical risk factors such as high blood pressure or diabetes are linked with higher risks of surgical complications.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Number and timing of pregnancies influence breast cancer risk for women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation

Researchers confirm the lower risk of breast cancer from multiple pregnancies and from breast feeding seen in average risk women extends to those at the highest risk of breast cancer, according to the largest prospective study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations carriers to date. Women with BRCA1 mutations who had two, three or four or more full-term pregnancies were at 21 percent, 30 percent, and 50 percent decrease risk of breast cancer compared to women with a single full-term pregnancy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Precision drugs could unmask cancers to immune system and boost effects of immunotherapy

Precision cancer drugs called PARP inhibitors have a previously unknown ability to boost the immune system, and could help many more patients benefit from immunotherapy, a new study reveals.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New gene hunt reveals potential breast cancer treatment target

Researchers have developed a way to discover elusive cancer-promoting genes, already identifying one that appears to promote aggressive breast cancers. The team developed a statistical approach to reveal many previously hard-to-find genes that contribute to cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Crystal-clear view of a key neuronal receptor opens door for new, targeted drugs

One of the most important protein signaling systems that controls neuronal guidance consists of the cell surface receptor ‚Robo‘ and its cognate external guidance cue ‚Slit.‘ The deficit of either of these proteins results in defects in brain structure and function. Researchers have now discovered the intricate molecular mechanism that allows the guidance receptor ‚Robo‘ to react to signals in its environment, while avoiding premature activity that can lead to harmful outcomes.

Quelle: Sciencedaily