Developing a novel HIV vaccine: DNA and recombinant proteins

Researchers have developed a novel vaccine consisting of DNA and recombinant proteins — proteins composed of a portion of an HIV protein and another unrelated protein.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecular sensor scouts DNA damage and supervises repair

Using single-molecule imaging, researchers witness how molecules find and fix damaged DNA.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New genetic interactions that may impact cancer outcomes

Scientists have identified 12 distinct types of gene-pair interactions in which varying levels of expression in the two genes correlated with cancer patient survival. The results suggest that genes involved in such paired interactions could provide new targets for cancer therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Targeting old bottleneck reveals new anticancer drug strategy

The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase is a bottleneck for cancer cell growth. Scientists have identified a way of targeting ribonucleotide reductase that may avoid the toxicity of previous approaches, informing focused drug discovery efforts.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Encephalitis identified as rare toxicity of immunotherapy treatment

Researchers chronicling rare but serious toxicities that may occur with immune checkpoint inhibitors, the most widely prescribed class of immunotherapies.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

More colorectal cancer cases are being diagnosed in younger patients

Average age at diagnosis in the United States has decreased over the past decade.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New deactivation mechanism for switch proteins detected

A new mechanism for the deactivation of switch proteins has been identified. Switch proteins such as Ras regulate many processes in the body and affect diseases such as cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Overstuffed cancer cells may have an Achilles‘ heel

In a study using yeast cells and data from cancer cell lines, scientists report they have found a potential weak spot among cancer cells that have extra sets of chromosomes, the structures that carry genetic material. The vulnerability, they say, is rooted in a common feature among cancer cells — their high intracellular protein concentrations — that make them appear bloated and overstuffed, and which could be used as possible new targets for cancer treatments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Genetic similarities of osteosarcoma between dogs and children

A bone cancer known as osteosarcoma is genetically similar in dogs and human children, according to the results of a new study. The findings could help break the logjam in the treatment of this deadly disease, which hasn’t seen a significant medical breakthrough in nearly three decades.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Shedding light on darker parts of our genetic heritage

More than half of our genome consists of transposons, DNA sequences that are reminiscent of ancient, extinct viruses. Transposons are normally silenced by a process known as DNA methylation, but their activation can lead to serious diseases. Very little is known about transposons but researchers in an international collaboration project have now succeeded for the first time in studying what happens when DNA methylation is lost in human cells. These findings provide new insight into how changes in DNA methylation contribute to diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Many of the deadliest cancers receive the least amount of research funding

Many of the deadliest or most common cancers get the least amount of nonprofit research funding, reports a new study. ‚Embarrassing‘ or stigmatized cancers, like lung and liver, are underfunded. Colon, endometrial, liver and bile duct, cervical, ovarian, pancreatic and lung cancers were all poorly funded compared to how common they are and how many deaths they cause, the study found. In contrast, breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma and pediatric cancers were all well-funded, respective to their impact on society.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Transfer of oncogene in colon cancer cells demonstrated

For years, doctors and scientists have known very little about why patients can receive drugs successfully for months, or even years, before developing a drug resistance. Now researchers propose that there is a cellular as well as molecular cause to this phenomenon in colon cancer, with potential application to other similarly aggressive cancers as well.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Low doses of radiation promote cancer-capable cells

New research finds that low doses of radiation equivalent to three CT scans, which are considered safe, give cancer-capable cells a competitive advantage over normal cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers explain muscle loss with menopause

New research has shown that estrogen is essential to maintaining muscle stem cell health.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Biomaterial-delivered chemotherapy leads to long-term survival in brain cancer

A combination of chemotherapy drugs during brain cancer surgery using a biodegradable paste, leads to long-term survival, researchers have discovered.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

‚Trojan horse‘ anticancer drug disguises itself as fat

A stealthy new drug-delivery system disguises chemotherapeutics as fat in order to outsmart, penetrate and destroy tumors. Thinking the drugs are tasty fats, tumors invite the drug inside. Once there, the targeted drug activates, immediately suppressing tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Test shown to improve accuracy in identifying precancerous pancreatic cysts

CompCyst, a new test, distinguishes pancreatic cysts that are destined to become cancer and need to be surgically removed from cysts that can be left alone without causing harm. The researchers believe CompCyst has the capacity to substantially reduce unnecessary surgeries for pancreatic cysts.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Making cancer stem cells visible to the immune system

Leukemia stem cells protect themselves against the immune defense by suppressing a target molecule for killer cells. This protective mechanism can be tricked with drugs. Scientists now describe a new therapeutic approaches that can possibly be derived from these results.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Crunching the numbers of cancer metastasis

While revealing that metastatic breast cancer cells alter their shape to spread to other regions of the body, researchers develop a mathematical model that can be applied to study similar cellular systems.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

p38 protein regulates the formation of new blood vessels

A new study demonstrates that inhibition of the p38 protein boosts the formation of blood vessels in human and mice colon cancers. Known as angiogenesis, this process is critical in fueling cancer cells, allowing them to grow and to eventually develop metastases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer device created to see if targeted chemotherapy is working

Researchers have created a device that can determine whether targeted chemotherapy drugs are working on individual cancer patients. The portable device, which uses artificial intelligence and biosensors, is up to 95.9% accurate in counting live cancer cells when they pass through electrodes, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Study identifies potential markers of lung cancer

Researchers identify markers that can distinguish between major subtypes of lung cancer and can accurately identify lung cancer stage.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Slug, a stem cell regulator, keeps breast cells healthy by promoting repair of DNA damage

A new biomedical research study finds a transcription factor called Slug contributes to breast cell fitness by promoting efficient repair of DNA damage. The absence of Slug leads to unresolved DNA damage and accelerated aging of breast cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers wirelessly hack ‚boss‘ gene, a step toward reprogramming the human genome

A new study describes how researchers wirelessly controlled FGFR1 — a gene that plays a key role in how humans grow from embryos to adults — in lab-grown brain tissue. The ability to manipulate the gene, the study’s authors say, could lead to new cancer treatments, and ways to prevent and treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A genomic barcode tracker for immune cells

A new research method to pinpoint the immune cells that recognise cancer could significantly change how we treat the disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily