Stopping cancer from recruiting immune system double agents

Cancerous tumors trick myeloid cells, an important part of the immune system, into perceiving them as a damaged part of the body; the tumors actually put myeloid cells to work helping them grow and metastasize (spread). Researchers have now discovered a potential therapy that can disrupt this recruitment and abnormal function of myeloid cells in laboratory mice. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

An errant editing enzyme promotes tumor suppressor loss and leukemia propagation

Researchers have found a stem cell enzyme copy edits more than 20 tumor types, providing new therapeutic target for preventing cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Cancer cells steer a jagged path

Researchers define the role of a jagged ligand, JAG1, in cancer cells‘ ability to differentiate and metastasize, making them harder to track down and eliminate. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Biological markers that could guide treatment for prostate cancer

Genetic alterations in low-risk prostate cancer diagnosed by needle biopsy can identify men that harbor higher-risk cancer in their prostate glands, researchers have discovered. The research found for the first time that genetic alterations associated with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer also may be present in some cases of low-risk prostate cancers. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Sex differences identified in deadly brain tumors

More males get, and die of, the deadly brain cancer glioblastoma than females. A team of researchers has identified distinct molecular signatures of glioblastoma in men and women that help explain disparities in patients‘ response to treatment and survival. The research suggests that tailoring treatments to men and women with glioblastoma based on the molecular subtypes of their tumors may improve survival for all patients. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Tumors backfire on chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is an effective treatment for breast cancer, yet some patients develop metastasis in spite of it. Researchers have now discovered that chemotherapy-treated mammary tumors produce small vesicles that may help them spread to other organs. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Unmuting large silent genes lets bacteria produce new molecules, potential drug candidates

By enticing away the repressors dampening unexpressed, silent genes in Streptomyces bacteria, researchers at the have unlocked several large gene clusters for new natural products. Since many antibiotics, anti-cancer agents and other drugs have been derived from genes readily expressed in Streptomyces, the researchers hope that unsilencing genes that have not previously been expressed in the lab will yield additional candidates in the search for new antimicrobial drugs. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Breaking down AGEs: Insight into how lifestyle drives ER-positive breast cancer

Consumption of processed foods high in sugar and fat increase levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Researchers report that AGE levels are higher in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. Addition of AGEs caused breast cancer cells, whose growth had previously been controlled by tamoxifen, to begin to grow again. This suggests that patients with high AGEs may be less likely to respond to tamoxifen treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Elegant trick improves single-cell RNA sequencing

Droplet microfluidics has revolutionized single-cell RNA sequencing, offering a low-cost, high-throughput method for single-cell genomics. However, this method has been limited in its ability to capture complete RNA transcription information. Researchers have now come up with an elegant, low-cost method that solves that problem. And not only does it push single-cell genomics forward, it may allow for new avenues for studies of infection and immune biology. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

AIDS: An approach for targeting HIV reservoirs

Current HIV treatments need to be taken for life by those infected as antiretroviral therapy is unable to eliminate viral reservoirs lurking in immune cells. Scientists have identified the characteristics of CD4 T lymphocytes that are preferentially infected by the virus. Thanks to metabolic activity inhibitors, the researchers have managed to destroy these infected cells, or ‚reservoirs‘, ex vivo. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Novel imaging technique brings diagnostic potential into operating room

Researchers have successfully visualized the tumor microenvironment of human breast tissue shortly after it was surgically removed from a patient in the operating room. The researchers achieved this using a new portable optical imaging system. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Bacteria rely on classic business model

The pneumonia causing pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has developed a twin-track strategy to colonize its host. It generates two different cells – motile spreaders and virulent stickers. Researchers at the University of Basel’s Biozentrum have now elucidated how the germ attaches to tissue within seconds and consecutively spreads. Just like the business model: settling – growing – expanding. The study has been published in Cell Host & Microbe. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Game over for Zika? KU Leuven researchers develop promising vaccine

Scientists have developed a new vaccine against the Zika virus. This vaccine should prevent the virus from causing microcephaly and other serious conditions in unborn babies. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Brain Confetti – Why our Sense of Smell Declines in Old Age

As mammals age, their sense of smell deteriorates. In a study published in the journal ‘Cell Reports’, an interdisciplinary research team at Helmholtz Zentrum München and the University Medical Centre Mainz investigated why this is the case. For their study, the researchers tracked the development of stem cells in the brains of mice using what are known as confetti reporters. They then analysed the complex data obtained using intelligent algorithms. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

How breast cancer avoids immune system detection

Researchers analyzed data from more than 1,000 breast cancer patients and found that breast cancer behaves differently than other cancers that are currently treated with immunotherapy. They identified seven clusters of breast cancer patients based on the immune evasion mechanisms that breast cancer uses to avoid detection. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Two ways cancer resists treatment are actually connected, with one activating the other

Researcher shows the two most common means of resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors are actually connected processes and can be targeted by other therapies. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

A versatile vaccine that can protect mice from emerging tick-borne viruses

Researchers have developed a vaccine that is effective in mice against Powassan virus, an emerging tick-borne virus that can cause life-threatening encephalitis in humans. They also show that the vaccine produces antibodies that can protect the mice against other, related tick-transmitted flaviviruses. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Buruli Ulcer: Promising New Drug Candidate Against a Forgotten Disease

Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) resulting in debilitating skin lesions, disabilities and stigmatisation. The current antibiotic treatment is long and has severe adverse side effects. Researchers from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) together with colleagues from Singapore have discovered a highly effective compound against Buruli ulcer which has the potential to become a powerful alternative to the existing treatment options. Results were published today in the peer-reviewed journal Nature Communications. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

HPV discovery raises hope for new cervical cancer treatments

Researchers have made a discovery about human papillomavirus (HPV) that could lead to new treatments for cervical cancer and other cancers caused by the virus, the most common sexually transmitted disease. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Health and Aging Research

Researchers from Rostock Develop Integrative Terminological Framework (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

How bacteria turn off an antibiotic

Researchers from the HZI and the HIPS discovered that resistant bacteria scavenge and inactivate the agent albicidin using a protein, which they produce in large amounts (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Fossilized competition

Species interactions impact biodiversity but operate on small local scales that are not readily observable in fossil ecosystems. Researchers of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin tried to lift this veil. Their study, recently published in the journal PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Science), sheds light which ecological factors drove diversification processes in the geological past. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Communication between neural networks

Researchers at the Bernstein Center Freiburg and colleagues are proposing a new model to explain how neural networks in different brain areas communicate with each other (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

New insights into the diet of the extinct cave bears

During the Late Pleistocene period (between 125,000 to 12,000 years ago) two bear species roamed Europe: brown bears (Ursus arctos) and extinct cave bears (Ursus spelaeus s.l.). It is generally assumed that fossil brown bears had a similar diet to extant brown bears, but the situation is not as clear cut for the cave bear. From its discovery up until now, researchers have debated its diet. However, a new paper in the journal Historical Biology sheds light on this issue. Two researchers from Germany and Spain found that the cave bear likely had largely herbivorous diet. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Prostate cancer: New computer model enables researchers to predict course of disease

How does a normal cell turn into a deadly cancer? Seeking an answer to this Question researchers examined the tumor genomes of nearly 300 prostate cancer patients. Their findings describe the ways in which changes in the prostate cells‘ genetic information pave the way for cancer development. Using a newly developed computer model, it is now possible to predict the course of the disease in individual patients. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)