High-dose radiation therapy improves long-term survival in patients with stage-IV cancers, trial finds

The first report from a phase II, multi-center clinical trial indicates that a newer, more aggressive form of radiation therapy — stereotactic radiation — can extend long-term survival for some patients with stage-IV cancers while maintaining their quality of life.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Targeted treatment shrinks deadly pediatric brain tumors

For children — whose tiny bodies are still growing — chemotherapy and radiation treatments can cause lifelong damage. Now, scientists have reported that a targeted therapy that blocks a protein called LSD1 was able to shrink tumors in mice with a form of pediatric brain cancer known as medulloblastoma. LSD1 inhibitors are currently under evaluation in clinical trials for other cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

An errant editing enzyme promotes tumor suppressor loss and leukemia propagation

Researchers have found a stem cell enzyme copy edits more than 20 tumor types, providing new therapeutic target for preventing cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

The future of fighting cancer: Zapping tumors in less than a second

New accelerator-based technology aims to reduce the side effects of cancer radiation therapy by shrinking its duration from minutes to under a second. Built into future compact medical devices, technology developed for high-energy physics could also help make radiation therapy more accessible around the world. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Promising lead in genetic approach to treating glioblastoma

Scientists hope they have made progress toward a next-generation drug that may slow tumor growth and boost radiation’s effectiveness in patients with the deadly brain cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Tiny molecule has big effect in childhood brain tumor studies

A very small molecule under study is able to kill a childhood brain cancer, and the lead researcher said it may be possible to reduce by 90 percent the amount of chemotherapy and radiation required to kill such tumors. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

High exposure to radio frequency radiation associated with cancer in male rats

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) concluded there is clear evidence that male rats exposed to high levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR) like that used in 2G and 3G cell phones developed cancerous heart tumors, according to final reports released today. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Mouse and human skin cells produce melanin on a 48-hour cycle

Researchers have discovered that mouse skin and skin cells from humans produce pigmentation in response to sunlight on a 48-hour cycle. They observed that exposing skin to ultraviolet light every two days yielded darker pigmentation with less radiation damage than daily exposure. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

A 150-year-old drug might improve radiation therapy for cancer

A drug first identified 150 years ago and used as a smooth-muscle relaxant might make tumors more sensitive to radiation therapy. Researchers found that the drug papaverine inhibits the respiration of mitochondria, the oxygen-consuming and energy-making components of cells, and sensitizes model tumors to radiation. They found that the drug does not affect the radiation sensitivity of well-oxygenated normal tissues. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Blütenpracht durch genetische Anpassung: Wiener Wissenschafter entschlüsseln Genom der Akelei

Die Akelei ist eine Pflanze mit auffallend schönen Blüten und rund siebzig verschiedenen Arten in der nördlichen Hemisphäre, vier davon findet man in Österreich. Diese große Vielfalt ist das Ergebnis eines Prozesses, welcher adaptive Radiation genannt wird: Die adaptive Radiation lässt, aufgrund der Anpassung an neue Standorte, neue Arten sehr schnell entstehen. Bei der Akelei sind durch diesen Prozess Arten mit sehr unterschiedlichen Blütenfarben und -formen entstanden, die untereinander problemlos gekreuzt werden können. In Gärtnereien und Privatgärten konnte dadurch eine riesige Vielzahl von sehr unterschiedlichen prachtvollen Blütenvariationen gezüchtet werden. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

microRNAs Predict Recurrence Risk of Head and Neck Tumors

A new method predicts the course of HPV-negative head and neck cancer after radiation chemotherapy. According to a recent article in the journal ‘Clinical Cancer Research’, five microRNAs (miRNAs) can provide the decisive data. The work was conducted at the Helmholtz Zentrum München and the University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) in close collaboration with the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK). (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Effect of radiation exposure on hormone deficiencies

Researchers have detailed the effect of radiation exposure on the development of hormone deficiency in pediatric and young adult patients treated for brain tumors. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

New drug could prevent debilitating side effect of cancer treatment

About 50,000 people in the US are diagnosed annually with head, neck, nasal and oral cancers. Most are treated with radiation, and of those, 70-80 percent develop a painful and debilitating side effect called severe oral mucositis. A new drug could potentially prevent the condition. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Cetuximab+RT found to be inferior to standard treatment in HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer

An interim analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial of patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal cancer found that treatment with radiation therapy and cetuximab is associated with worse overall and progression-free survival compared to the current standard treatment with radiation and cisplatin. The trial was designed to see if cetuximab with radiation would be less toxic than cisplatin with radiation without compromising survival for patients with the disease. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Wearable ‚microbrewery‘ saves human body from radiation damage

The same way that yeast yields beer and bread can help hospital lab workers better track their daily radiation exposure, enabling a faster assessment of tissue damage that could lead to cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Smarter cancer treatment: AI tool automates radiation therapy planning

Beating cancer is a race against time. Developing radiation therapy plans — individualized maps that help doctors determine where to blast tumors — can take days. Now, engineering researchers have developed automation software that aims to cut the time down to mere hours. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Mobile phone radiation may affect memory performance in adolescents

Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may have adverse effects on the development of memory performance of specific brain regions exposed during mobile phone use. These are the findings of a study involving nearly 700 adolescents in Switzerland. The investigation, led by the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), will be published on Thursday, 19 July 2018 in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Breast cancer follow-up imaging varies widely, study finds

Follow-up imaging for women with non-metastatic breast cancer varies widely across the country, according to a new study. Some patients go without the annual mammograms that experts recommend, while others with the same cancer diagnosis receive full-body scans that expose them to significant amounts of radiation and are not recommended by experts. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Laser-sonic scanner aims to replace mammograms for finding breast cancer

For women over 40, mammography is a necessary yet annoying procedure to endure every year or two. The technique, while valuable for reducing breast cancer deaths, is less than ideal because it exposes patients to X-ray radiation and requires their breasts to be painfully squished between plates. The plates flatten the breast so the X-rays can more easily pass through it and produce a clear image. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

New combination treatment against relapsed head and neck cancer

The five-year survival rate for locally-advanced head and neck cancer is only 46 percent, even with treatments including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and/or genetically targeted treatments such as cetuximab. Often, the problem is that while treatments initially work, cancer evolves to resist treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Deep space radiation treatment reboots brain’s immune system

NASA and private company SpaceX plan to send humans to Mars within the next 15 years — but need to figure out how to protect astronauts from the dangerous cosmic radiation of deep space. Now neuroscientists have identified a potential treatment for the brain damage caused by cosmic rays — a drug that prevents memory impairment in mice exposed to simulated space radiation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Diagnosing breast cancer with an imaging pill

For women, mammograms are a sometimes uncomfortable, but necessary, annual ritual. But this procedure doesn’t always provide accurate results, and it exposes women to X-rays. In a new study, scientists report that they have developed a non-invasive ‚disease screening pill‘ that can make cancerous tumors light up when exposed to near-infrared light in mice without using radiation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Gadolinium deposition in the brain not dose dependent

Investigators have determined that in children receiving gadolinium as a contrast agent to enhance MRI examinations, signal changes attributed solely to deposition of this material in the brain are not dependent on the amount of gadolinium administered but rather these changes are seen in association with other factors such as the presence of brain tumors and treatment using brain irradiation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

An AI oncologist to help cancer patients worldwide

Before performing radiation therapy, oncologists review medical images to identify tumors and surrounding tissue, a process known as contouring. Researchers have developed a new method for automating the contouring of high-risk clinical target volumes using artificial intelligence and supercomputers. They found the predicted contours could be implemented clinically, with only minor or no changes. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Is whole-brain radiation still best for brain metastases from small-cell lung cancer?

A new study compares outcomes of 5,752 small-cell lung cancer patients who received whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with those of 200 patients who received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), finding that the median overall survival was actually longer with SRS (10.8 months with SRS versus 7.1 months with WBRT). (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)