Study may explain why once-promising cancer drugs failed

Nearly two decades ago, a class of once-promising cancer drugs called MMP inhibitors mysteriously failed in clinical trials. Now scientists think they may have an explanation. A new study shows that when MMP enzymes are disabled, invasive cells can change their tactics. The findings in C. elegans worms could lead to better ways to prevent metastasis, the spread of the disease responsible for 90 percent of cancer deaths.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Tumors backfire on chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is an effective treatment for breast cancer, yet some patients develop metastasis in spite of it. Researchers have now discovered that chemotherapy-treated mammary tumors produce small vesicles that may help them spread to other organs. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Faster, cheaper test can help predict risk of metastasis in prostate cancer patients

A report describes a new assay to assess copy number alterations that is cheaper, faster, reproducible, and requires less tissue than other diagnostic techniques and has the potential to significantly enhance prostate cancer evaluation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Cutting the legs off cancer

Melanoma skin cancer tumors grow larger and are more likely to metastasize due to interactions between a pair of molecules, according to experiments in mice and human cells. The results may restore the potential for a type of cancer therapy previously abandoned in clinical trials. The results also implicate one molecule already connected to obesity and dementia as a potential cause of metastasis, or spread of cancer cells to other areas of the body. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Breast cancer cells become invasive by changing their identity

Researchers have identified a protein that determines the identity and invasive properties of breast cancer cells. The finding could lead to the development of new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies to target breast cancer invasion and metastasis. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Age-related changes in skin structure and lymphatic system promote melanoma metastasis

Changes in the structure of the skin and the lymphatic system that occur with the natural aging process create permissive conditions for melanoma metastasis. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

How a sleeping cancer awakens and metastasizes

Scientists have determined one of the ways in which cancers in remission can spring back into action. This knowledge has inspired a new treatment idea designed to prevent cancer recurrence and metastasis. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Potent chemical agents can thwart cancer metastasis

Scientists have devised potent chemical agents 135H11 and 135H12 that can thwart cancer metastasis, bringing research closer to drug development. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Cancer: Establishing metastasis

Scientists have discovered that a protein called VRK1 might help cancer to take root in new parts of the body. VRK1 was discovered to be necessary for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, which scientists suspect may be important for the establishment of metastasis. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Ovarian cancer: Quick steps to widespread disease

Ovarian cancer cells that interact with cancer-associated fibroblasts can mobilize glycogen as an energy source, leading to proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Blocking glycogen mobilization in cancer cells might reduce tumor spread. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Novel role of protein in important pathways that lead to cancer malignancy

Researchers have revealed for the first time that a specific protein, the fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), plays a critical role in the development and metastasis of highly aggressive prostate and breast cancer cells. They point out that a better understanding of the molecular pathways of specific cancers is a step in the direction of finding more effective therapeutic targets. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Observing the mechanism of metastasis for the first time

The exact mechanisms for how broken cellular function appears in cells far removed from a cancer’s primary tumor remain an area of ongoing research. Scientists have now confirmed a link between healthy-tumor hybrid cells and metastatic tumors for the first time in live animals. They discuss how they studied the distinct, heterogenous gene expression profiles found in human hybrid cells and how hybrid cells spontaneously occur in mouse models. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

A reliable, easy-to-use mouse model for investigating bone metastasis

Researchers propose an improved mouse model that could revolutionize bone metastasis research. Their method, which involves injecting cancer cells via the so-called caudal artery in the mouse tail, overcomes many limitations of traditional mouse models. The new model could thus open a new chapter in the development of therapeutic strategies for bone metastasis and cancer progression. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Scientists discover a dynamic cellular defense against breast cancer invasion

Researchers report they have demonstrated in mouse tissue grown in the lab that the cell layer surrounding breast milk ducts reaches out to grab stray cancer cells to keep them from spreading through the body. The findings reveal that this cell layer, called the myoepithelium, is not a stationary barrier to cancer invasion, as scientists previously thought, but an active defense against breast cancer metastasis. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Computing power used to track the spread of cancer

Researchers have developed a new computational method that increases the ability to track the spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another. This migration of cells can lead to metastatic disease, which causes about 90 percent of cancer deaths from solid tumors — masses of cells that grow in organs such as the breast, prostate or colon. Understanding the drivers of metastasis could lead to new treatments aimed at blocking the process of cancer spreading through the body. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

New target to stop cancer growth uncovered

Researchers have discovered that a protein called Munc13-4 helps cancer cells secrete large numbers of exosomes — tiny, membrane-bound packages containing proteins and RNAs that stimulate tumor progression. The study could lead to new therapies that stop tumor growth and metastasis by halting exosome production. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Putting the brakes on metastatic cancer

A groundbreaking discovery has identified previously unknown therapeutic targets that could be key to preventing the spread of cancer. Researchers found that by inhibiting several newly identified gene targets they could block more than 99.5 per cent of cancer metastasis in living cells. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

When push comes to shove: Airway cells propel liver cancer spread to lungs

Researchers identified a crucial role for air sac-based scavenger blood cells, alveolar macrophages (AMs), in driving hepatocellular cancer metastasis in the lungs. AMs were found to be recruited by interstitial macrophages (IMs) through interactions between the IM-expressed signaling molecule CCL2 and its AM-expressed receptor. AMs then secrete leukotriene B4, which promotes tumor cell growth. This is the first evidence for the distinct roles of AMs and IMs in liver cell lung metastasis. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Mathematical model explains why metastasis can occur even when cancer is caught early

Leaning on evolutionary and ecological theory, researchers modeled how a tumor’s various cancer cell lineages compete for dominance. Their findings help explain a surprising observation: Most metastatic tumors derive from cancer cell lineages that emerge at early stages of the disease. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

A way to prevent pancreatic cancer from spreading post-surgery?

New research suggests a strategy for lowering the odds of metastasis following successful pancreatic cancer surgery: The post-operative period, suggests a researcher, ‚offers a window during which efforts might be made to keep cortisol levels down and T cells strong so the patient’s own immune system can kill the cancer cells that have made their way to other parts of the body but until this point have been dormant.‘ (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

New molecular mechanism likely involved in cancer metastasis

Scientists knew the PDK1 signaling pathway was active in metastasizing cancer cells, but no one knew why. New research has found for the first time that the PDK1 pathway regulates the formation of a three-protein core complex that facilitates purine biosynthesis. Further work aims to map all the protein complexes and signaling pathways they regulate in cancer cells, which would open doors to new ways of disrupting or even preventing metastasis. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Study confirms curable state between single and widespread cancers

Using molecular determinants combined with clinical data, physicians confirm their oligometastasis hypothesis in colorectal cancers with limited spread of disease to the liver. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Breast cancer: Discovery of a protein linked to metastasis

Researchers experimentally block the spread of a type of breast cancer. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Cancer cells thrive in stiff tissue

Scientists studying tumor growth and metastasis have fabricated a human tissue model to examine how cancer cells interact with connective tissue in the breast. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Lymphatic endothelial cells promote melanoma to spread

The lymph vessel endothelial cells play an active role in the spread of melanoma, according to the new study. The researchers found that growing human melanoma cells in co-cultures with human primary lymphatic endothelial cells revealed crosstalk of cancer cells with the tumor microenvironment leading to the increased invasive growth of melanoma cells and distant organ metastasis in a mouse tumour model. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)