Proteomics analysis identifies potential drug targets for aggressive human cancers

Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine show that analysis of the proteomics, or all the protein data, from aggressive human cancers is a useful approach to identify potential novel therapeutic targets.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Retracing the history of the mutation that gave rise to cancer decades later

Researchers reconstructed the evolutionary history of cancer cells in two patients, tracing the timeline of the mutation that causes the disease to a cell of origin. In a 63-year-old patient, it occurred at around age 19; in a 34-year-old patient, at around age 9.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer ‚guardian‘ breaks bad with one switch

A mutation that replaces a single amino acid in a potent tumor-suppressing protein makes it prone to nucleating amyloid fibrils implicated in many cancers as well as neurological diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Key steps discovered in production of critical immune cell

Researchers have uncovered a process cells use to fight off infection and cancer that could pave the way for precision cancer immunotherapy treatment. Through gaining a better understanding of how this process works, researchers hope to be able to determine a way of tailoring immunotherapy to better fight cancer. This research lays the foundation for future studies into the body’s response to environmental stressors, such as injury, infection or cancer, at a single cell level.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers illuminate potential precursors of blood cancers

Researchers provide new clues about genetic mutations that may initiate blood cancer development and those that may help cancer to progress.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Future of immunotherapy could be ‚off-the-shelf‘ treatments

Scientists argue that emerging protein-based immunotherapies could lead to highly effective ‚off-the-shelf‘ cancer treatments for more patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Velcro-like cellular proteins key to tissue strength

Where do bodily tissues get their strength? New research provides important new clues to this long-standing mystery, identifying how specialized proteins called cadherins join forces to make cells stick — and stay stuck — together. The findings could lead to more life-like artificial tissues and tumor busting drugs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New algorithm identifies ‚escaping‘ cells in single-cell CRISPR screens

A team of researchers has developed a new computational tool to help understand the function and regulation of human genes.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mutant gene-targeted immunotherapy approach developed

A novel targeted immunotherapy approach employs new antibodies against genetically altered proteins to target cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Single cell sequencing opens new avenues for eradicating leukemia at its source

Cancer stem cells that elude conventional treatments like chemotherapy drive long-term cancer growth and relapse. These cells are difficult to isolate and study because of their low abundance and similarity to other stem cells. Researchers have created a new method that can distinguish cancer stem cells, mature cancer cells and otherwise healthy stem cells based on their genetics and gene expression. The findings open new avenues for cancer research personalised medicine.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

What to do when a mammogram shows swollen lymph nodes in women just vaccinated for COVID

When women undergo breast imaging shortly after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine in the arm, their tests may show swollen lymph nodes in the armpit area. Radiologists say that this is usually a normal finding, and if there are no other concerns, no additional imaging tests are needed unless the lymph nodes remain swollen for more than six weeks after vaccination. The team has published an approach to help avoid delays in both vaccinations and breast cancer screening.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Artificial microswimmers slow down and accumulate in low-fuel regions

A researcher has discovered that artificial microswimmers accumulate where their speed is minimized, an idea that could have implications for improving the efficacy of targeted cancer therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Sulfur metabolism may have paved the way for evolution of multicellularity

When the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum runs out of food, sulfur limitation drives its development from a unicellular to a multicellular organism. Researchers now present the nutrient signaling pathways in this early eukaryote in great detail. Their results show how metabolism may have played a crucial role in the origins of multicellularity. Moreover, the findings also have therapeutic implications for more complex organisms such as humans. Targeting sulfur metabolism in cancer cells may enhance anti-tumor immunity.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

High energy radiotherapy could ‚paint‘ tumors to avoid harming healthy tissue

A radiotherapy technique which ‚paints‘ tumors by targeting them precisely, and avoiding healthy tissue, has been devised.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Turbocharging the killing power of immune cells against cancer

Creating ’super soldiers‘ of specific white blood cells to boost an anti-tumor response has been shown in a series of elegant experiments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Potentially harmful chemicals found in plastic toys

New research suggests that more than 100 chemicals found in plastic toy materials may pose possible health risks to children. The study provides findings that may lead to stricter international regulations.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New insights on how inflammatory molecule contributes to skin and pancreatic cancers

An immune molecule called interleukin-33 can act within a cell’s nucleus to stimulate abnormal growth and division, ultimately resulting in cancer. Targeting interleukin-33 in the nucleus may help prevent certain cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Screening for macrocyclic peptides

Macrocyclic peptides are promising candidates for pharmaceuticals, but their screening is difficult. Scientists have now developed an easy-to-use, high-throughput screening assay for cyclic peptides with affinity to ubiquitin, a protein that helps to degrade proteins and induce cell death. The results could lead to novel drug candidates against cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Investment needed to bring down pancreatic cancer death rates in Europe

Researchers have called on European policymakers to make adequate resources available to tackle pancreatic cancer, a disease that is almost invariably fatal and where little progress has been made over the past 40 years. The latest predictions for cancer deaths in the EU and UK for 2021 show that pancreatic death rates are predicted to remain approximately stable for men, but continue to rise in women in most EU countries.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Genetic variants for skin color in African Americans linked to vitamin D deficiency

One day physicians may be able to look at an African American’s skin color and, with the help of other determinants, know if prescribing vitamin D supplements would lower that person’s risk of getting cancers of the prostate, colon, rectum or breast.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Chatter between cell populations drives progression of gastrointestinal tumors

Researchers identified new therapeutic targets for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) that could lead to new treatment options for patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Deep learning may help doctors choose better lung cancer treatments

Researchers have developed a deep learning model that, in certain conditions, is more than 71 percent accurate in predicting survival expectancy of lung cancer patients, significantly better than traditional machine learning models that the team tested. The other machine learning models the team tested had about a 61 percent accuracy rate.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Combination therapy suppresses pancreatic tumor growth in mice

Researchers have uncovered a potential new way to target pancreatic tumors that express high intratumoral interferon signaling (IFN).

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Toward a disease-sniffing device that rivals a dog’s nose

A new system can detect the chemical and microbial content of an air sample with even greater sensitivity than a dog’s nose. Researchers coupled this to a machine-learning process that can identify the distinctive characteristics of the disease-bearing samples.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Never-before-seen antibody binding, informing liver cancer, antibody design

In structural biology, some molecules are so unusual they can only be captured with a unique set of tools. That’s precisely how a team defined how antibodies can recognize a compound called phosphohistidine — a highly unstable molecule that has been found to play a central role in some forms of cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily