Older biologic age linked to elevated breast cancer risk

Biologic age, a DNA-based estimate of a person’s age, is associated with future development of breast cancer, according to scientists. Biologic age was determined by measuring DNA methylation, a chemical modification to DNA that is part of the normal aging process. For every five years a woman’s biologic age was older than her chronologic or actual age, she had a 15 percent increased risk of developing breast cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

What tumor cells and a healthy retina have in common

Researchers are parsing how the retina hijacks an energy-producing chemical reaction to churn out molecular building blocks to renew photoreceptor membranes that keep our vision sharp.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New compound offers superior therapeutic approach to treat MS

Previous studies have shown that estrogens and estrogen-like compounds reduce multiple sclerosis-like inflammation and disability in mice. At first glance these treatments appear promising, but they carry a host of negative side effects, from feminizing male mice to increasing the risk of cancer, heart disease and stroke. An interdisciplinary team of scientists have piggy-backed on this approach with a new concept that side steps the negative side effects while alleviating symptoms.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists uncover how high-fat diet drives colorectal cancer growth

A new study suggests that high-fat diets fuel colorectal cancer growth by upsetting the balance of bile acids in the intestine and triggering a hormonal signal that lets potentially cancerous cells thrive. The findings could explain why colorectal cancer, which can take decades to develop, is being seen in younger people growing up at a time when higher-fat diets are common.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Design principles for disease-sensing nanomaterials

A new article outlines novel design guidance that could rapidly advance development of disease-sensing nanomaterials for use in new drug development.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Coping with cancer: Partners can reframe challenging situations

Spouses can help breast cancer patients with coping by positively reframing the cancer experience and other negative experiences. In general, positive reframing — finding the silver lining — was associated with less stress. Researchers suggest the findings can be extended to a broader population.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Consuming garlic and onions may lower colorectal cancer risk

Consumption of allium vegetables — which include garlic, leeks, and onions — was linked with a reduced risk of in colorectal cancer in a study of men and women in China.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Melanoma brain metastases are immunosuppressive with treatment-resistant metabolism

Melanoma tumors that have spread to the brain are equipped to thwart immunotherapies and targeted therapies that succeed against tumors growing in other sites. Researchers report that the heavy reliance of these tumors on a specific metabolic pathway presents a potentially new therapeutic against these lethal tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Drug ‚librarian‘ discovers new compound that may thwart common surgery complication

In a strategic search, scientists created and screened a library of 45,000 new compounds containing chemical elements of widely used immune system suppressants, and say they found one that may prevent reperfusion injury, a tissue-damaging and common complication of surgery, heart attack and stroke.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New compound could help treat ovarian cancer

Scientists have discovered a compound that could be more effective in treating certain cancers than standard chemotherapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Using crystals to unpick how viruses work

Researchers have used X-ray crystallography and computer simulation to get a closer look at how viruses bind cells and cause infection.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cervical microbiome may promote high-grade precancerous lesions

Infections with a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) cause 99 percent of cervical cancer cases, and the disease’s first sign is often the appearance of precancerous lesions on a woman’s cervix. But bacteria may play an important role, too. New research suggests that the cervical microbiome may influence HPV infection more than researchers previously thought.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

T-cell receptor diversity may be key to treatment of follicular lymphoma, study finds

Healthy T-cells play a crucial role in how the body fights follicular lymphoma, according to a new study. T-cells are a key part of the immune system and protect the body by fighting infections and cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Very early marker of cardiac damage triggered by cancer treatment

Researchers have identified a very early marker of cardiac damage in patients undergoing therapy with anthracyclines, a family of drugs commonly used to treat cancer. This finding will enable the early diagnosis of the cardiotoxicity associated with this group of widely used chemotherapy drugs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers find trigger that turns strep infections into flesh-eating disease

Scientists discovered a previously unknown trigger that turns run-of-the-mill strep infections into the flesh-eating disease childbed fever, which strikes postpartum moms and newborns, often leaving victims without limbs. Using an unprecedented approach, they looked at the interplay between the genome, transcriptome and virulence. This generated a massive data set, lending itself to artificial intelligence analysis. Through AI they unexpectedly discovered a new mechanism controlling virulence.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Advancing therapy by measuring the ‚games‘ cancer cells play

Despite rapid advances in targeted therapies for cancer, tumors commonly develop resistance to treatment. When resistance emerges, tumor cells continue to grow unchecked, despite all attempts to slow cancer progression. While mutations in cancer cells significantly affect drug sensitivity, it is increasingly recognized that ecological interactions between cells can also play a role.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Drug combination may become new standard treatment for advanced kidney cancer

A combination of two drugs — one of them an immunotherapy agent — could become a new standard, first-line treatment for patients with metastatic kidney cancer, results from a phase 3 clinical trial suggest.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

3D protein structure reveals a new mechanism for future anti-cancer drugs

Researchers have discovered a new mechanism for a class of anti-cancer drugs known as E1 inhibitors. Their findings reveal a novel binding site that will promote drug design of more efficient E1 inhibitors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

On the origin of B1 cells

A new study may resolve a decades-old debate in immunology: researchers report that distinct progenitor cells are not required for the development of B1 cells. Instead, the team’s experiments show that a B1-typical B-cell receptor can reprogram B2 cells into B1 cells, suggesting that B1 cells emerge as a consequence of their special B-cell receptors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

‚Cellular barcoding‘ reveals how breast cancer spreads

A cutting-edge technique called cellular barcoding has been used to tag, track and pinpoint cells responsible for the spread of breast cancer from the main tumour into the blood and other organs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Exercise might improve health by increasing gut bacterial diversity

Research has suggested that the efficiency with which we transport oxygen to our tissues (cardiorespiratory fitness) is a far greater predictor of gut microbiota diversity than either body fat percentage or general physical activity.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Immunological scarring from celiac disease

Immune cells in the bowel of people who suffer with celiac disease are permanently replaced by a new subset of cells that promote inflammation, suggests a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cell study sheds light on damage caused by aging

Some of the damaging cell effects linked to aging could be prevented by manipulating tiny parts of cells, a study shows.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Platinum nanoparticles for selective treatment of liver cancer cells

Researchers recently demonstrated that platinum nanoparticles can be used to kill liver cancer cells with greater selectivity than existing cancer drugs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Only ‚modest‘ improvement in heart failure survival rates since 2000

Survival after a diagnosis of heart failure in the United Kingdom has shown only modest improvement in the 21st century and lags behind other serious conditions, such as cancer, finds a large study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily