Shedding light on darker parts of our genetic heritage

More than half of our genome consists of transposons, DNA sequences that are reminiscent of ancient, extinct viruses. Transposons are normally silenced by a process known as DNA methylation, but their activation can lead to serious diseases. Very little is known about transposons but researchers in an international collaboration project have now succeeded for the first time in studying what happens when DNA methylation is lost in human cells. These findings provide new insight into how changes in DNA methylation contribute to diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Genetic similarities of osteosarcoma between dogs and children

A bone cancer known as osteosarcoma is genetically similar in dogs and human children, according to the results of a new study. The findings could help break the logjam in the treatment of this deadly disease, which hasn’t seen a significant medical breakthrough in nearly three decades.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Many of the deadliest cancers receive the least amount of research funding

Many of the deadliest or most common cancers get the least amount of nonprofit research funding, reports a new study. ‚Embarrassing‘ or stigmatized cancers, like lung and liver, are underfunded. Colon, endometrial, liver and bile duct, cervical, ovarian, pancreatic and lung cancers were all poorly funded compared to how common they are and how many deaths they cause, the study found. In contrast, breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma and pediatric cancers were all well-funded, respective to their impact on society.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Transfer of oncogene in colon cancer cells demonstrated

For years, doctors and scientists have known very little about why patients can receive drugs successfully for months, or even years, before developing a drug resistance. Now researchers propose that there is a cellular as well as molecular cause to this phenomenon in colon cancer, with potential application to other similarly aggressive cancers as well.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers explain muscle loss with menopause

New research has shown that estrogen is essential to maintaining muscle stem cell health.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Low doses of radiation promote cancer-capable cells

New research finds that low doses of radiation equivalent to three CT scans, which are considered safe, give cancer-capable cells a competitive advantage over normal cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

‚Trojan horse‘ anticancer drug disguises itself as fat

A stealthy new drug-delivery system disguises chemotherapeutics as fat in order to outsmart, penetrate and destroy tumors. Thinking the drugs are tasty fats, tumors invite the drug inside. Once there, the targeted drug activates, immediately suppressing tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Biomaterial-delivered chemotherapy leads to long-term survival in brain cancer

A combination of chemotherapy drugs during brain cancer surgery using a biodegradable paste, leads to long-term survival, researchers have discovered.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Test shown to improve accuracy in identifying precancerous pancreatic cysts

CompCyst, a new test, distinguishes pancreatic cysts that are destined to become cancer and need to be surgically removed from cysts that can be left alone without causing harm. The researchers believe CompCyst has the capacity to substantially reduce unnecessary surgeries for pancreatic cysts.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Crunching the numbers of cancer metastasis

While revealing that metastatic breast cancer cells alter their shape to spread to other regions of the body, researchers develop a mathematical model that can be applied to study similar cellular systems.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Making cancer stem cells visible to the immune system

Leukemia stem cells protect themselves against the immune defense by suppressing a target molecule for killer cells. This protective mechanism can be tricked with drugs. Scientists now describe a new therapeutic approaches that can possibly be derived from these results.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

p38 protein regulates the formation of new blood vessels

A new study demonstrates that inhibition of the p38 protein boosts the formation of blood vessels in human and mice colon cancers. Known as angiogenesis, this process is critical in fueling cancer cells, allowing them to grow and to eventually develop metastases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer device created to see if targeted chemotherapy is working

Researchers have created a device that can determine whether targeted chemotherapy drugs are working on individual cancer patients. The portable device, which uses artificial intelligence and biosensors, is up to 95.9% accurate in counting live cancer cells when they pass through electrodes, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Study identifies potential markers of lung cancer

Researchers identify markers that can distinguish between major subtypes of lung cancer and can accurately identify lung cancer stage.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Slug, a stem cell regulator, keeps breast cells healthy by promoting repair of DNA damage

A new biomedical research study finds a transcription factor called Slug contributes to breast cell fitness by promoting efficient repair of DNA damage. The absence of Slug leads to unresolved DNA damage and accelerated aging of breast cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers wirelessly hack ‚boss‘ gene, a step toward reprogramming the human genome

A new study describes how researchers wirelessly controlled FGFR1 — a gene that plays a key role in how humans grow from embryos to adults — in lab-grown brain tissue. The ability to manipulate the gene, the study’s authors say, could lead to new cancer treatments, and ways to prevent and treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A genomic barcode tracker for immune cells

A new research method to pinpoint the immune cells that recognise cancer could significantly change how we treat the disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Dietary quality influences microbiome composition in human colonic mucosa

Studying the association between diet quality and microbiome composition in human colonic mucosa revealed that a high-quality diet is linked to more potentially beneficial bacteria, while a low-quality diet is associated with an increase in potentially harmful bacteria.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer tissue-freezing approach may help more breast cancer patients in lower income countries

A new reusable device can help women with breast cancer in lower income countries by using carbon dioxide, a widely available and affordable gas, to power a cancer tissue-freezing probe instead of industry-standard argon.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

An inflammatory diet correlates with colorectal cancer risk

This new study correlates a proinflamatory diet with the risk of developing colorectal cancer among the Spanish population.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How artificial intelligence can be used to more quickly and accurately diagnose breast cancer

Breast ultrasound elastography is an emerging imaging technique used by doctors to help diagnose breast cancer by evaluating a lesion’s stiffness in a non-invasive way. Researchers identified the critical role machine learning can play in making this technique more efficient and accurate in diagnosis.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Fewer than half of US adults exposed to court-ordered anti-smoking advertisements

The tobacco industry’s court-ordered anti-smoking advertisements reached just 40.6 percent of US adults and 50.5 percent of current smokers in 2018, according to new research. Exposure to the advertisements was even lower among certain ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups historically targeted by tobacco industry marketing.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

HIV: Reprogramming cells to control infection

Following research on cohorts, scientists have described the characteristics of CD8 immune cells in these ‚HIV controller‘ subjects. The unique antiviral power of these immune cells can be attributed to an optimal metabolic program that confers persistence and the ability to react effectively against infected cells. Working ex vivo, the scientists successfully reprogrammed cells from infected non-controller individuals to give them the same antiviral potency as controllers‘ cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Rise in early onset colorectal cancer not aligned with screening trends

A new study finds that trends in colonoscopy rates did not fully align with the increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger adults, adding to evidence that the rise in early onset CRC is not solely a result of more detection.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Targeting a key protein may keep ovarian cancer cells from spreading

Preventing a protein from doing its job may keep a certain type of ovarian cancer cell from growing and dividing uncontrollably in the lab, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily