More than half of our genome consists of transposons, DNA sequences that are reminiscent of ancient, extinct viruses. Transposons are normally silenced by a process known as DNA methylation, but their activation can lead to serious diseases. Very little is known about transposons but researchers in an international collaboration project have now succeeded for the first time in studying what happens when DNA methylation is lost in human cells. These findings provide new insight into how changes in DNA methylation contribute to diseases.
A bone cancer known as osteosarcoma is genetically similar in dogs and human children, according to the results of a new study. The findings could help break the logjam in the treatment of this deadly disease, which hasn’t seen a significant medical breakthrough in nearly three decades.
Many of the deadliest or most common cancers get the least amount of nonprofit research funding, reports a new study. ‚Embarrassing‘ or stigmatized cancers, like lung and liver, are underfunded. Colon, endometrial, liver and bile duct, cervical, ovarian, pancreatic and lung cancers were all poorly funded compared to how common they are and how many deaths they cause, the study found. In contrast, breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma and pediatric cancers were all well-funded, respective to their impact on society.
For years, doctors and scientists have known very little about why patients can receive drugs successfully for months, or even years, before developing a drug resistance. Now researchers propose that there is a cellular as well as molecular cause to this phenomenon in colon cancer, with potential application to other similarly aggressive cancers as well.
New research finds that low doses of radiation equivalent to three CT scans, which are considered safe, give cancer-capable cells a competitive advantage over normal cells.
A stealthy new drug-delivery system disguises chemotherapeutics as fat in order to outsmart, penetrate and destroy tumors. Thinking the drugs are tasty fats, tumors invite the drug inside. Once there, the targeted drug activates, immediately suppressing tumor growth.
A combination of chemotherapy drugs during brain cancer surgery using a biodegradable paste, leads to long-term survival, researchers have discovered.
CompCyst, a new test, distinguishes pancreatic cysts that are destined to become cancer and need to be surgically removed from cysts that can be left alone without causing harm. The researchers believe CompCyst has the capacity to substantially reduce unnecessary surgeries for pancreatic cysts.
Leukemia stem cells protect themselves against the immune defense by suppressing a target molecule for killer cells. This protective mechanism can be tricked with drugs. Scientists now describe a new therapeutic approaches that can possibly be derived from these results.
A new study demonstrates that inhibition of the p38 protein boosts the formation of blood vessels in human and mice colon cancers. Known as angiogenesis, this process is critical in fueling cancer cells, allowing them to grow and to eventually develop metastases.
Researchers have created a device that can determine whether targeted chemotherapy drugs are working on individual cancer patients. The portable device, which uses artificial intelligence and biosensors, is up to 95.9% accurate in counting live cancer cells when they pass through electrodes, according to a new study.
A new biomedical research study finds a transcription factor called Slug contributes to breast cell fitness by promoting efficient repair of DNA damage. The absence of Slug leads to unresolved DNA damage and accelerated aging of breast cells.
A new study describes how researchers wirelessly controlled FGFR1 — a gene that plays a key role in how humans grow from embryos to adults — in lab-grown brain tissue. The ability to manipulate the gene, the study’s authors say, could lead to new cancer treatments, and ways to prevent and treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia.
Studying the association between diet quality and microbiome composition in human colonic mucosa revealed that a high-quality diet is linked to more potentially beneficial bacteria, while a low-quality diet is associated with an increase in potentially harmful bacteria.
A new reusable device can help women with breast cancer in lower income countries by using carbon dioxide, a widely available and affordable gas, to power a cancer tissue-freezing probe instead of industry-standard argon.
This new study correlates a proinflamatory diet with the risk of developing colorectal cancer among the Spanish population.
Breast ultrasound elastography is an emerging imaging technique used by doctors to help diagnose breast cancer by evaluating a lesion’s stiffness in a non-invasive way. Researchers identified the critical role machine learning can play in making this technique more efficient and accurate in diagnosis.
The tobacco industry’s court-ordered anti-smoking advertisements reached just 40.6 percent of US adults and 50.5 percent of current smokers in 2018, according to new research. Exposure to the advertisements was even lower among certain ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups historically targeted by tobacco industry marketing.
Following research on cohorts, scientists have described the characteristics of CD8 immune cells in these ‚HIV controller‘ subjects. The unique antiviral power of these immune cells can be attributed to an optimal metabolic program that confers persistence and the ability to react effectively against infected cells. Working ex vivo, the scientists successfully reprogrammed cells from infected non-controller individuals to give them the same antiviral potency as controllers‘ cells.
A new study finds that trends in colonoscopy rates did not fully align with the increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) in younger adults, adding to evidence that the rise in early onset CRC is not solely a result of more detection.
Preventing a protein from doing its job may keep a certain type of ovarian cancer cell from growing and dividing uncontrollably in the lab, according to a new study.