Do all chemotherapies have equal long-term heart risk?

Different chemotherapy drugs were associated with varying degrees of long-term risk of cardiomyopathy in survivors of childhood cancers, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Method to ‚turn off‘ mutated melanoma

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and notorious for its resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Approximately 25 percent of melanoma is driven by oncogenic mutations in the NRAS gene, making it a very attractive therapeutic target. However, despite decades of research, no effective therapies targeting NRAS have been forthcoming.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The hitchhiker’s guide to defeating glioblastoma

A team of investigators has begun looking at microRNAs in an entirely new way. Their approach has shown promising results in preclinical models, increasing survival in a murine model of glioblastoma by five-fold when combined with chemotherapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Targeted treatment shrinks deadly pediatric brain tumors

For children — whose tiny bodies are still growing — chemotherapy and radiation treatments can cause lifelong damage. Now, scientists have reported that a targeted therapy that blocks a protein called LSD1 was able to shrink tumors in mice with a form of pediatric brain cancer known as medulloblastoma. LSD1 inhibitors are currently under evaluation in clinical trials for other cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

An errant editing enzyme promotes tumor suppressor loss and leukemia propagation

Researchers have found a stem cell enzyme copy edits more than 20 tumor types, providing new therapeutic target for preventing cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Tumors backfire on chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is an effective treatment for breast cancer, yet some patients develop metastasis in spite of it. Researchers have now discovered that chemotherapy-treated mammary tumors produce small vesicles that may help them spread to other organs. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Checkmating tumors

Chess and cancer research have one thing in common: one must act strategically to defeat the opponent. And that’s exactly what scientists are doing. They are seeking to selectively make only those cancer cells aggressive that would otherwise evade chemotherapy — and then lure them into a trap. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy effective in Phase II leukemia study

A combination of the standard-of-care chemotherapy drug known as azacitidine, with nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, demonstrated an encouraging response rate and overall survival in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia, according to new findings. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Tiny molecule has big effect in childhood brain tumor studies

A very small molecule under study is able to kill a childhood brain cancer, and the lead researcher said it may be possible to reduce by 90 percent the amount of chemotherapy and radiation required to kill such tumors. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Preventing heart disease in cancer survivors

A new study by Washington State University researchers suggests that a protein called CDK2 plays a critical role in heart damage caused by doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapy drug. Published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, their finding could be used as the basis for future development of treatment strategies and drugs to reduce heart disease risk in cancer survivors, especially those treated in childhood. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Chemotherapy may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

Chemotherapy drugs to treat breast cancer may promote muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, according to new research. Dysfunctional mitochondria, the energy centers of the cells, may contribute to fatigue and weakness that some people with breast cancer experience through the course of disease treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

‚Paintable‘ chemotherapy shrinks skin tumors in mice

Skin acts as the first line of defense against pathogens and other harmful material from outside the body. Yet this barrier also excludes some beneficial drugs that could treat skin diseases. Now, researchers have taken the first steps in developing a chemotherapy for melanoma that can be ‚painted‘ directly on the skin, rather than injected or taken orally. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Milk protein shown to alleviate chemotherapy side effects

Chemotherapy can wreak havoc on the taste buds and olfactory senses, depriving recipients of the intricate interplay between taste and smell that is critical to enjoying foods. Over time, taste and smell abnormalities can lead to a loss of appetite and anorexic behaviors, compromising patients‘ ability to recuperate. Researchers investigated the feasibility of lactoferrin, a highly bioactive protein found in saliva and milk, as a treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

CT45 – A key to long-term survival in ovarian cancer

The diagnosis of ovarian cancer is still comparable to a death sentence. Only one in six patients survives more than 10 years after diagnosis. In a new study, an international research team from Germany, the USA, and Denmark, identified a molecular mechanism that is linked to patient long-term survival for those roughly 20% of the patients. By proteomic analysis, the protein CT45 was identified as a novel prognostic cancer cell marker. The authors further showed that the protein itself increases cancer cell death after platinum chemotherapy and activates the patient’s immune system. This work will be published in the renowned scientific journal Cell. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Anti-cancer drugs may hold key to overcoming antimalarial drug resistance

Scientists have found a way to boost the efficacy of the antimalarial drug artemesinin with the help of chemotherapy medicines. Artemisinin works through a ‚double whammy‘ attack on the deadly parasite. The drug damages proteins in malaria parasites and clogs the parasite’s waste disposal system, known as the proteasome, which chemo can target. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Better chemo drug adsorption onto targeted delivery capsules

One of the challenges in cancer research is improving the delivery of chemo drugs to enhance their efficacy while decreasing the risk of side effects. Scientists now perform a theoretical prediction of adsorption of a well-known chemo drug onto active carbon with aluminium inclusions, to show its potential as an oral chemotherapy delivery capsule. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Unexpected cell population key to blood cancer relapse

A study suggests that leukemia cells change in unique ways in response to chemotherapy allowing them to masquerade for a short time so they are able to start disease regeneration. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

How our immune system detects broken DNA

Our immune system can detect when our own cells are damaged. This DNA damage can come from a variety of sources, such as the sun’s UV rays, chemical agents like cigarette smoke, or from genotoxic drugs used in chemotherapy. A new study found that DNA damage can lead to an immune response similar to that observed during viral infection. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

microRNAs Predict Recurrence Risk of Head and Neck Tumors

A new method predicts the course of HPV-negative head and neck cancer after radiation chemotherapy. According to a recent article in the journal ‘Clinical Cancer Research’, five microRNAs (miRNAs) can provide the decisive data. The work was conducted at the Helmholtz Zentrum München and the University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) in close collaboration with the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK). (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Chemotherapy may lead to early menopause in young women with lung cancer

A new study suggests chemotherapy may cause acute amenorrhea leading to early menopause in women with lung cancer. The study is the first to comment on amenorrhea rates in women younger than 50, concluding that women with lung cancer who desire future fertility should be educated about risks and options before starting treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Discovery could lead to better treatment for leukemia

Scientists report on how a certain mutation helps improve sensitivity to chemotherapy. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Doxorubicin disrupts the immune system to cause heart toxicity

Doxorubicin is a chemotherapy drug used in ovarian, bladder, lung, thyroid and stomach cancers, but it carries a harmful side effect. The drug causes a dose-dependent heart toxicity that can lead to congestive heart failure. Researchers have found an important contributor to that heart pathology — disruption of the metabolism that controls immune responses in the spleen and heart. This dysregulated immunometabolism impairs resolution of inflammation, and chronic, non-resolving inflammation leads to advanced heart failure. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Magnetic nanoparticles deliver chemotherapy to difficult-to-reach spinal tumors

Researchers have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. The unique delivery system represents a novel way to target chemotherapy drugs to spinal cancer cells, which are hard to reach because the drugs must cross the blood-brain barrier. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

T-cell leukemia: Cancer cells take advantage of ’survival protein‘

Cancer researchers have shown that some patients with T-cell leukemia produce too much of the BCL-2 protein. Cancer cells take advantage of this ’survival protein‘ which allows them to escape chemotherapy. A drug suppressing this BCL-2 shows promising results. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

New drug halves hearing loss in children following cancer treatment

Giving the drug sodium thiosulphate after chemotherapy reduces hearing loss in children treated for liver cancer, according to new findings. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)