Scientists discover ‚jumping‘ genes that can protect against blood cancers

New research has uncovered a surprising role for so-called ‚jumping‘ genes that are a source of genetic mutations responsible for a number of human diseases. Scientists made the unexpected discovery that these DNA sequences, also known as transposons, can protect against certain blood cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Malignant bone marrow disease: New hope for MPN patients

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are still difficult to treat. A team from Vetmeduni Vienna and the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences/Medical University of Vienna has discovered a new therapeutic approach that could fundamentally change this situation, as evidenced by a study that was published recently in the academic journal Blood.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Bösartige Knochenmarkserkrankung: Neue Hoffnung für MPN-PatientInnen

Myeloproliferative Neoplasien (MPN) können derzeit nur unzureichend behandelt werden. Ein Team der Vetmeduni Vienna und des CeMM Forschungszentrums für Molekulare Medizin der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften/Medizinische Universität Wien entdeckte einen neuen Behandlungsansatz, der das nun grundlegend ändern könnte, wie eine soeben in der wissenschaftlichen Top-Zeitschrift „Blood“ veröffentlichte Studie zeigt.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Forschende verjüngen Immunsystem: Blutbildende Stammzellen als Schlüssel zu starken Abwehrkräften

Seniorinnen und Senioren sind nicht nur anfälliger für Infektionen, auch Impfungen sind im Alter weniger wirksam. Nun haben Ulmer Forschende das Immunsystem im Modell „verjüngt“. Der Schlüssel zu einem leistungsfähigen Immunsystem sind demnach blutbildende Stammzellen. Im Fachjournal „Blood“ belegt die Gruppe auch die wichtige Rolle dieser Stammzellen bei der Alterung des Immunsystems.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Drug compound could be next-generation treatment for aggressive form of leukemia

Researchers are developing a series of drug compounds that have shown promise in treating acute myeloid leukemia, an aggressive blood cancer that is one of the most lethal cancers. About 19,520 news cases are diagnosed a year, and about 10,670 people a year die from it, according to the American Cancer Society. About 30 percent of AML patients have a mutation caused by a kinase called FLT3, which makes the leukemia more aggressive.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecule supporting hematopoietic recovery after transplantation of blood stem cells identified

Transplantation of blood stem cells (haematopoietic stem cell transplantation) is an important treatment option for patients with haematopoietic disorders. This method is also applied in hematopoietic stem cell-directed gene therapy. Researchers from the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI), Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines identified the endothelial protein-C receptor (EPCR) on hematopoietic stem cells to improve stem cell transplantation. These research results are reported in the journal Blood in its online version of 25.01.2019.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Wichtiger Treiber der Blutbildung nach Transplantation von Blutstammzellen identifiziert

Die Übertragung von Blutstammzellen (hämatopoetische Stammzelltransplantation) ist eine wichtige Therapieoption bei Patientinnen und Patienten mit Störungen der Blutbildung. Auch bei der Gentherapie von Erkrankungen des blutbildenden Systems kommt sie zum Einsatz. Forschende des Paul-Ehrlich-Instituts (PEI), Bundesinstitut für Impfstoffe und biomedizinische Arzneimittel, haben mit dem Endothelialen Protein-C-Rezeptor (EPCR) eine Zielstruktur identifiziert, mit der sich die Stammzelltransplantation positiv beeinflussen lassen könnte. Über die Forschungsergebnisse berichtet Blood in seiner Online-Ausgabe vom 25.01.2019.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New therapeutic target for graft-vs-host disease could make bone marrow transplant safer

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of bone marrow transplant, a potentially curative treatment for patients with blood-borne cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma. Inhibiting Sirt-1 in a mouse model helped control GVHD without making tumor relapse more likely, report researchers. The inhibitor has already been proven safe in humans but would need further testing in patients with blood-borne cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New blood vessel system discovered in bones

A previously unknown network of fine capillaries directly connecting the bone marrow with the circulation of the periosteum has been discovered by a team of scientists led by Prof. Matthias Gunzer and Dr. Anja Hasenberg from the Institute for Experimental Immunology and Imaging at the University Hospital of the University Duisburg-Essen (UDE) in Germany. The group was further supported by research institutes in Erlangen, Jena, Berlin, Dresden and Berne (Switzerland). Their results have now been published in the prestigious international journal “Nature Metabolism”.

Quell: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Scientists learn how common virus reactivates after transplantation

A new study challenges long-held theories of why a common virus — cytomegalovirus, or CMV — can reactivate and become a life-threatening infection in people with a compromised immune system, including blood cancer patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Human blood cells can be directly reprogrammed into neural stem cells

Scientists have succeeded for the first time in directly reprogramming human blood cells into a previously unknown type of neural stem cell. These induced stem cells are similar to those that occur during the early embryonic development of the central nervous system. They can be modified and multiplied indefinitely in the culture dish and can represent an important basis for the development of regenerative therapies. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

A compound being developed to treat eye disease also kills leukemia cells

An active ingredient in eye drops that were being developed for the treatment of a form of eye disease has shown promise for treating an aggressive form of blood cancer. Scientists have found that this compound, which targets an essential cancer gene, could kill leukemia cells without harming non-leukemic blood cells. The results reveal a potential new treatment approach for an aggressive blood cancer with a poor prognosis. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Sea invertebrate sheds light on evolution of human blood, immune systems

Botryllus schlosseri, a marine invertebrate that lives in underwater colonies resembling fuzzy pinheads clinging to rocks, has a blood-forming system with uncanny similarities to that of humans, according to scientists. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Genetically engineered immune cells show promise for fighting relapsed blood cancer

Researchers are presenting preliminary results from a clinical study of an investigational cellular immunotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma expressing the CD30 protein marker. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Newly diagnosed AML in older adults: Results for venetoclax

Clinical trial results show a 91 percent response rate to the combination of venetoclax with azacitidine in older adults newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Of 33 patients given combination venetoclax and azacitidine, 20 experienced a complete response (aka complete remission) and eight experienced a complete response but with continued low blood counts. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Easy to use 3D bioprinting technique creates lifelike tissues from natural materials

Bioengineers have developed a 3D bioprinting technique that works with natural materials and is easy to use, allowing researchers of varying levels of technical expertise to create lifelike tissues, such as blood vessels and a vascularized gut. The goal is to make human organ models that can be studied outside the body or used to test new drugs ex vivo. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Healthy blood stem cells have as many DNA mutations as leukemic cells

Researchers have shown that the number of mutations in healthy and leukemic blood stem cells does not differ. Rather the location of the mutations in the DNA is relevant. Using the mutation patterns in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) the team was able to trace the developmental lineage tree of the cells. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Mutations boost immunity: Toward a cancer vaccine

In a new study, researchers describe a method for pinpointing tumor-specific factors in blood that can elicit a protective immune response in the body and may one day be harnessed to produce an effective vaccine against the disease. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Role of circulating tumor DNA to detect early melanoma growth

Researchers say they have added to evidence that measuring and monitoring tumor DNA that naturally circulates in the blood of melanoma patients can not only reliably help reveal the early stages of cancer growth and spread but also uncover new treatment options that tumor genetic analysis alone may not. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

A new approach to detecting cancer earlier from blood tests

Cancer scientists have combined ‚liquid biopsy,‘ epigenetic alterations and machine learning to develop a blood test to detect and classify cancer at its earliest stages. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Medica 2018: Control with your feet – computer game to help prevent thrombosis

A clot in a blood vessel can block the artery. This is what doctors call thrombosis. To prevent thrombosis, exercises for legs and feet help. Often, however, those affected lack motivation. The computer game “jumpBALL”, developed by Kaiserslautern researchers together with medical doctors, provides helpful support. What is special: It’s controlled by your feet. The researchers have developed it to be used with smartphones and tablets. The game can also help after a stroke or hip or knee surgery. At the Medica medical technology trade fair in Düsseldorf from 12 to 15 November, researchers will present the game at the research stand of Rhineland-Palatinate (hall 7a, stand B06). (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Cytokine levels could predict immunotherapy problems

Researchers have identified blood-based biomarkers that may help identify those patients at greatest risk of developing autoimmune side effects from the treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

‚Mushrooms‘ and ‚brushes‘ help cancer-fighting nanoparticles survive in the body

In new research aimed at aiding cancer detection and treatment, scientists might have found the ideal surface texture for helping microscopic, medical helpers to survive in the bloodstream without being screened out by the body’s natural defense mechanisms. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Less animal experiments on the horizon: Multi-organ chip awarded

EARTO Award for Microsystem of the Fraunhofer IWS Dresden

(Dresden, 17.10.2018) Dresden Fraunhofer engineers have developed a so-called „multi-organ chip“. This microsystem from the Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS Dresden, which has now received an „EARTO Innovation Award“ in Brussels, simulates the blood circulation and the organs of animals or humans. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Vast leukemia dataset could help researchers match therapies to patients

Data on the molecular makeup and drug sensitivity of hundreds of patient samples could accelerate progress against the aggressive blood cancer acute myeloid leukemia. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)