Discovery may help explain why women get autoimmune diseases far more often than men

New evidence points to a key role for a molecular switch called VGLL3 in autoimmune diseases, and the major gap in incidence between women and men. Building on past research showing that women have more VGLL3 in their skin cells than men, a team studied it further in mice. They show that having too much VGLL3 in skin cells pushes the immune system into overdrive, leading to an autoimmune response and symptoms similar to lupus.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists advance creation of ‚artificial lymph node‘ to fight cancer, other diseases

In a proof-of-principle study in mice, scientists report the creation of a specialized gel that acts like a lymph node to successfully activate and multiply cancer-fighting immune system T-cells. The work puts scientists a step closer, they say, to injecting such artificial lymph nodes into people and sparking T-cells to fight disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Making digital tissue imaging better

A low-tech problem troubles the high-tech world of digital pathology imaging: There are no reliable standards for the quality of digitized tissue slides comprising the source material for computers reading and analyzing vast numbers of images. Poor-quality slides get mixed in with accurate slides, potentially confusing a computer program trying to learn what a cancerous cell looks like. Researchers are trying to fix this, sharing an open-source quality control standard.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Bacterial therapy in a dish

Biomedical engineers have developed a system that can study 10s to 100s of programmed bacteria within mini-tissues in a dish, condensing study time from months to days. The speed and high throughput of their technology allows for stable growth of bacteria within tumor spheroids and can also be used for other bacteria species and cell types. The team says this study is the first to rapidly screen and characterize bacteria therapies in vitro.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers pinpoint tumor-related protein, slow progression of cancers

A new study has identified a potential strategy for treating multiple forms of cancerous tumors: targeting a protein that maliciously rewires immune cells and impedes cancer therapies. The researchers showed that inhibiting the protein with an existing compound helped slow or even reject tumors stemming from four cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New study targets Achilles‘ heel of pancreatic cancer, with promising results

Advanced pancreatic cancer is often symptomless, leading to late diagnosis only after metastases have spread throughout the body. Now, researchers have uncovered the role of a signaling protein, called LIF, that may be the Achilles‘ heel of pancreatic cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Fragments of cellular machinery reveal unexpected variability among cancers

New research shows the mitochondrial genome may play a significant role in these fragment interactions with cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Factors behind embryonic stem cell state

An international collaboration has found for the first time that two new epigenetic regulators, TAF5L and TAF6L, maintain self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. The scientists also found that these proteins activate c-Myc (a well-known cancer gene), and its regulatory network. This is the first time scientists have been able to show what these regulators do and how they control gene expression.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New arsenic-based broad-spectrum antibiotic

Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health threats of our time. There is a pressing need for new and novel antibiotics to combat the rise in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Researchers have now discovered a new broad-spectrum antibiotic that contains arsenic. Arsinothricin is a natural product made by soil bacteria.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Discovery of oral cancer biomarkers could save thousands of lives

Oral cancer is known for its high mortality rate in developing countries, but an international team of scientists hope its latest discovery will change that. Researchers have discovered epigenetic markers that are distinctly different in oral cancer tissues compared to the adjacent healthy tissues in patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Magic mouthwash effective treatment for mouth sore pain caused by radiation therapy

‚Magic mouthwash,‘ an oral rinse containing diphenhydramine, lidocaine and antacids, significantly reduced pain from oral mucositis, mouth sores, in patients receiving radiation therapy for cancers of the head and neck when compared to plaecbo.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists ‚reverse engineer‘ brain cancer cells to find new targets for treatment

Glioblastoma is one of the most devastating forms of cancer, with few existing treatment options. It is also a leading cause of cancer-related death in children and young adults. Scientists have ‚reverse engineered‘ brain cancer stem cells gene by gene, uncovering multiple potential targets for this hard-to-treat cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Probing the mystery of drug resistance: New hope for leukemia’s toughest cases

A medical researcher has made it his mission to figure out why leukemia treatments cure some patients but not others. He and his team report progress on two important fronts: They shed light on how leukemia cells become resistant to drugs, and they describe how two drugs used in combination may overcome that resistance, offering new hope to thousands of children and adults with leukemia.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Precise decoding of breast cancer cells creates new option for treatment

Researchers have investigated the varying composition of cancer and immune cells in over one hundred breast tumors. They’ve found that aggressive tumors are often dominated by a single type of tumor cell. If certain immune cells are present as well, an immune therapy could be successful for a specific group of breast cancer patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scanning for cancer treatment

11,000 people are predicted to die from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 2019. Recently, drug developers designed a new treatment to target the cancer’s mutated genes. But, these drugs don’t always work. Now, in a new study, researchers investigate both sides of the drug-body relationship to better understand why certain AML treatments — and other cancer treatments — may not work as expected.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

‚Fingerprint database‘ could help scientists to identify new cancer culprits

Scientists have developed a catalogue of DNA mutation ‚fingerprints‘ that could help doctors pinpoint the environmental culprit responsible for a patient’s tumor – including showing some of the fingerprints left in lung tumors by specific chemicals found in tobacco smoke.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Turning silenced cancer genes back into fighters

Working with human colon cancer cells and mice, researchers led by experts at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have successfully blocked the activity of portions of a protein known as UHRF1 and restored the function of hundreds of cancer-fighting genes that became “misregulated“ by the disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mechanism of resistance to BRAF inhibitors in melanoma identified

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of skin cancer, but recent advances in targeted therapies have improved the prognosis for many patients. Unfortunately, for some patients these positive outcomes are not long lasting, due to the development of drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Researchers have now discovered a mechanism by which melanoma cells become resistant to the commonly used drugs that target the BRAF protein and its signaling pathway.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

One-third of cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine

A stunning one-third of people with a cancer diagnosis use complementary and alternative medicines such as meditation, yoga, acupuncture, herbal medicine, and supplements.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Shutting down deadly pediatric brain cancer at its earliest moments

Cell-by-cell genetic analyses of developing brain tissues in neonatal mice and laboratory models of brain cancer allowed scientists to discover a molecular driver of the highly aggressive, deadly, and treatment-resistant brain cancer, glioblastoma. The findings present an opportunity to find out if new therapeutic approaches can stop glioblastoma at its earliest stages of initial formation or recurrence.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Discovery of ‚kingpin‘ stem cell may help in the understanding of cancerous tumors

Bhatia’s team spent more than six years delving down to the cellular level to examine what they say are previously overlooked cells that form on the edges of pluripotent stem cell colonies. Having characterized these cells, the team also observed them form at the earliest stages of pluripotent cell reprogramming from adult cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Loss of a DNA repair system creates a unique vulnerability in many cancer types

Cancer cells adapt to potentially fatal mutations and other molecular malfunctions by adjusting one or more other genes‘ activity, in the process becoming dependent on those genes for their survival and growth. The resulting genetic dependencies may provide targets for developing new precision-guided drugs or other cancer treatment strategies. Reporting in Nature, researchers describe one such vulnerability shared by a large subset of colon, gastric, endometrial, and ovarian cancer cell lines.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Remedy for painful jaw disease

Researchers report a breakthrough to prevent osteonecrosis of the jaw, a side effect suffered by some people undergoing treatment for cancer or osteoporosis.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Releasing an immune system brake could help patients with rare but fatal brain infection

The anti-cancer drug pembrolizumab has shown promise in slowing or stopping the progression of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a typically fatal infection of the brain caused by the JC virus (JCV).

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The protein p38gamma identified as a new therapeutic target in liver cancer

Activation of the protein p38gamma is essential for the development of the main type of liver cancer, which affects more than 1 million people worldwide every year.

Quelle: Sciencedaily