Scientists discover ‚jumping‘ genes that can protect against blood cancers

New research has uncovered a surprising role for so-called ‚jumping‘ genes that are a source of genetic mutations responsible for a number of human diseases. Scientists made the unexpected discovery that these DNA sequences, also known as transposons, can protect against certain blood cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blocking a protein could help overcome cancer resistance to PARP inhibitors

Researchers have found that blocking a specific protein could increase tumor sensitivity to treatment with PARP inhibitors. Their work suggests combining treatments could lead to improved therapy for patients with inheritable breast cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

STING gene methylation allows melanoma to evade the immune system

Researchers demonstrate how an important defect in STING gene expression in melanoma cells contributes to their evasion from immune cell detection and destruction.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Artificial Intelligence could ‚crack the language of cancer and Alzheimer’s‘

Powerful algorithms can ‚predict‘ the biological language of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s, scientists have found. Big data produced during decades of research was fed into a computer language model to see if artificial intelligence can make more advanced discoveries than humans.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Biologists create better method to culture cells for testing drug toxicity

Researchers have discovered that by changing two components of the media used to culture the cells, they can make liver cancer cells behave more like normal liver cells. Rather than using standard serum containing glucose, they used serum from which the glucose had been removed using dialysis and added galactose to the media. This changes the metabolism of the cells making them behave more like normal liver cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How to tame a restless genome

LTR retrotransposons are small stretches of DNA that can move around the genome. Researchers figured out how cells keep these ‚jumping genes‘ anchored, preventing them from landing in the wrong place.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Parkinson’s, cancer, type 2 diabetes share a key element that drives disease

Researchers have discovered a direct link between a master sensor of cell stress and a protein that protects the power stations of cells. The same pathway is also tied to type 2 diabetes and cancer, which could open a new avenue for treating all three diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A drug that can stop tumors from growing

Scientists detail new work on NLRP3, an intracellular complex that has been found to participate in melanoma-mediated inflammation, leading to tumor growth and progression. By inhibiting NLRP3, the researchers found, they can reduce inflammation and the resultant tumor expansion.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel hydrogel carriers for anti-cancer drugs offer new hope for cancer treatment

Hydrogels are often used as drug delivery systems, but to be effective carriers for anti-cancer drugs, they need to be responsive to varied stimuli in the tumor microenvironment. Now, scientists have developed novel hydrogels to effectively deliver drugs to tumor sites in response to temperature and pH changes in the tumor microenvironment. These multi-stimuli-responsive hydrogels can eliminate remnant cancer cells following tumor excision through controlled drug release, offering hope for effective cancer treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mysterious ’nuclear speckle‘ structures inside cells enhance gene activity, may help block cancers

Scientists has illuminated the functions of mysterious structures in cells called ’nuclear speckles,‘ showing that they can work in partnership with a key protein to enhance the activities of specific sets of genes.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Software package enables deeper understanding of cancer immune responses

Researchers have developed DeepTCR, a software package that employs deep-learning algorithms to analyze T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing data.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Bespoke neuroblastoma therapy weaponizes cell metabolism

Preclinical research shows that the combination of two existing drugs can exploit the metabolic’hunger‘ of a particularly aggressive type of neuroblastoma to kill cancer cells without inflicting too much collateral damage to healthy tissue.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Study identifies possible COVID-19 drugs — including several that are FDA-approved

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Researchers have identified nine potential new COVID-19 treatments, including three that are already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating other diseases. The team screened thousands of existing drugs and drug-like molecules for their ability to inhibit the replication of the COVID-19-causing coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecular ’switch‘ turns precursors into kidney cells

Kidney development is a balancing act between the self-renewal of stem and progenitor cells to maintain and expand their numbers, and the differentiation of these cells into more specialized cell types. Scientists demonstrates the importance of a molecule called beta-catenin in striking this balance.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Protein that blocks body’s ability to clear bad cholesterol identified

Researchers have uncovered a long-sought link in the battle to control cholesterol and heart disease. The protein that interferes with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors that clear ‚bad‘ cholesterol from the blood was identified. Excess LDL cholesterol can lead to atherosclerosis — a narrowing and hardening of arteries — and ultimately, heart attack.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Why some cancer drugs may be ineffective

A possible explanation for why many cancer drugs that kill tumor cells in mouse models won’t work in human trials has been found.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Putting up a good fight: Regenerating the body’s natural defenses by restoring lymphatic networks

A research team is building new lymphatic cord-like structures, which help restore normal behavior to dysfunctional lymphatic systems and allow the body to fight the disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Chemo for glioblastoma may work better in morning than evening

An aggressive type of brain cancer, glioblastoma has no cure. Patients survive an average of 15 months after diagnosis, with fewer than 10% of patients surviving longer than five years. While researchers are investigating potential new therapies via ongoing clinical trials, a new study suggests that a minor adjustment to the current standard treatment — giving chemotherapy in the morning rather than the evening — could add a few months to patients‘ survival.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cervical cancer testing tech could replace pap smears, save lives

Emerging technologies can screen for cervical cancer better than Pap smears and, if widely used, could save lives in areas where access to health care may be limited. In Biophysics Reviews, scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital write advances in nanotechnology and computer learning are among the technologies helping develop HPV screening that take the guesswork out of the precancer tests. That could mean better screening in places that lack highly trained doctors and advanced laboratories.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How comorbidities increase risks for COVID patients

Comorbidities such as heart disease, respiratory disease, renal disease and cancer lead to an increased risk of death from COVID-19, according to new research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Herpesvirus triggers cervical cancer affecting nearly 1 in 4 adult sea lions

Research finds that a specific strain of herpesvirus triggers cervical cancer affecting nearly 1 in 4 necropsied California sea lions. The findings show that sea lions are a critical model for understanding how cancer develops with important parallels to human cancer research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Protein rewires metabolism to block cancer cell death, may allow cancer spread

One specific protein may be a master regulator for changing how cancer cells consume nutrients from their environments, preventing cell death and increasing the likelihood the cancer could spread, a study has shown.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mathematical modeling used to analyze dynamics of CAR T-cell therapy

Researchers use mathematical modeling to help explain why CAR T cells work in some patients and not in others.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Procedures identify Barrett’s esophagus patients at risk for cancer progression

A combination of esophageal brushing and extensive genetic sequencing of the sample collected can detect chromosome alterations in people with Barrett’s Esophagus, identifying patients at risk for progressing to esophageal cancer, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

First detailed look at crucial enzyme advances cancer research

Because Taspase 1 dysregulation is increasingly implicated in the genesis and metastasis of various cancers, it has become an attractive candidate for drug development. But before this can happen, researchers will need a highly detailed blueprint of the structure of this protease. In a new study appearing in the Cell Press journal Structure, researchers from Arizona State University describe their investigations, which reveal the structure of Taspase 1 as never before.

Quelle: Sciencedaily