An ischemic stroke is an extreme disturbance of the homeostasis of brain and body. Among other things, the immune system triggers an inflammatory reaction that can either overshoot or turn into an immune deficiency. For the first time, an international team of researchers – among them scientists from Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany – has now shown that tRNA fragments play a role in this immune reaction. Fragments of tRNAs, which transport amino acids during protein synthesis (“transfer RNA”), were long merely considered cellular waste. The aim of the research is to find new target structures for therapeutics.